Medizin + Bezeichnungen + Verschiedene Krankheiten + Human - sowie Körperteile / Detaliert und Spezifisch festgelegt ( Human & Medicine Glossary)

 

 

 

 

Medicine Sector 1

 

pancreas cancer-Bauchspeicherdrüsenkrebs

bladder cancer-Blasenkrebs

influenza / flu-Grippaler Infekt / Grippe

cancer-Krebs

pneumonia-Lungenentzündung

arthritis-Gelenkentzündung

spine-Rückgrat,Wirbelsäule

cartilage-Knorpel

bruise-Quetchung,Prellung

broken limbs-Gebrochene Körperglieder

seizure-Sichelzellensyndrom

toes-Zehen

fingernails-Fingernägel

brain cells-Gehirnzellen

heart attack-Herzanfall

concussion-Gehirnerschütterung

teeth-Zähne

messengers-Botenstoffe

cellular-Zellen -

stroke-Schlaganfall

cardiac arrest-Herzstillstand

cardiovascular-kardiovaskular / den Herzkrankengefäße betreffend

legs-Beine

abdomen,abdominal,belly-Bauch

forearm-Vorderarm

knees-Knie

lungs-Lungen

 

Medicine Sector 2

 

facies,facial-Oberfläche der Gesichts, Vorderseite des Kopfes nähmlich das Gesicht

wrist-Handgelenk

memantine-memantin

pharmaceutically-pharmazeutisch

Pharmacy-Apotheke,Pharmazie

psychotropic drugs-Neurolpetika,Neuroleptikum

neurolpetics-Neuroleptika

chest-Brust

throat-Hals

lung removal-Lungenentfernung

accident-Unfall

EKG-electrokardiogram

ultrasound cardiography-Echokardiographie

ultrasound-Ultraschall

brain Cells-Gehirnzellen

veins-Adern

tuberculosis-Tuberkulose

psychiatric disorder-psychische Erkrankung

electroencephalogram-Elektroenzephalogramm

blood collection-Blutentnahme

lupus-Hauttuberculose

drug store-Apotheke / Hierzulande - Löwenapotheke / Sonnenapotheke / Adlerapotheke

 

Medical Sector 3

 

reins-Nieren / kidneys-Nieren

glands-Schilddrüsen

encephalitis-Gehirnentzündung

electroconvulsive therapy-elektrokonvulsive Therapie

procedure-Eingriff,Operation

operating theatre-Operationssaal / OP

Medical Research-Medizinforschung

temperature-Fieber

myocardial-Herzmuskel

dermal-Haut

ocular-Augen

tender-schmerzempfindlich

anterolateral-von außenseitig,anterolateral

superficial-äußerlich

anorexia-Magersucht

osteopathic-ostheopatisch

dormal-Rücken

 

Medical Sector 4

 

brain biopsy-Gehirnbiopsie

larynx-Kehlkopf

comorbidity-Begleiterkrankung

stem cell-Stammzelle

incontinence-Inkontinenz

tomography-Schichtaufnahmeverfahren

lobes-Lungenlappen

venous-venös

endocrine-endokrin

compound-Präparat

hypertension-Bluthochdruck

reflux-Rücklauf

narcolepsy-Schlafkrankheit

hemisphere-Gehirnhälfte

anticholinergic-anticholinerg(Medicine)

palpable-spürbar

ligature-Abbinden

femoral-Oberschenkel

nausea-Übelkeit

invasive-blutig(Medicine)

acute stress disorder-akute Belastungsreaktion

systemic lupus erythematosus-systemischer Lupus erythematodes

diathesis-Diathese(Neigung zum Kranksein)

cervical spine-Halswirbelsäule

 

 

Medical Sector 5

 

 

neurodegenerative-neurodegenerativ

germicidal-keimtötend

pandemic-landesweite Epidemie

silicosis-Silikose, Staublunge

silica-Siliziumdioxid

carotid-Karotide

anaplasty-plastische Chirurgie

cerebral palsy / CP-Infantile Zerebralparese IC'P / Hirndruck

dermatitis-Hautentzüdung

analgesic-schmerzlindernd

over the counter-rezeptfrei

osteoporosis-Knochenschwund

hemoglobin-roter Blutfarbstoff

fetal-fetal

cordiality-Herzlichkeit

chills-Schüttelfrost

sequenced-aufeinanderfolgend

cystic fibrosis-zystische Fibrose

amythrophic-amythroph

enzyme-Enzyme

granulomatou-granulomatös

 

 

 

Medical Sector 6

 

 

 

in vivo-im lebenden Organismus

aripiprazole-Aripiprazol / Pharmaceutically

efficacy-Wirksamkeit

agonist-agonist

allosteric-allosterisch

muscarinic receptor-Muskarinrezeptor

polygenic-polygen

coniferious-zapfentragend

psoriasis-Schuppenflechte

mucosal-Schleimhaut

biomarker-Biomarker

immunoassay-Immunoassay

assay-Untersuchung

oncology-Krebskunde

immunotherpapy-Immuntherapy

metastatic-metastatisch

NSCLC / Non small cell lung cancer-nicht kleinzelliger Lungenkrebs

melanoma-Melanom

hematology-Blutkunde

follicular-follikular

remission-Abklingen von Fieber / Reduktion

 

 

 

Medical Sector 7

 

 

sclerosis-Sklerose / Medicine

interferon-Interferon / Pharmaceutically

B-Cells-B-Zellen(Biology)

rheumatoid-rheumähnlich

pathogenesis-Krankheitsentstehung

priming.vorbereiten

monoclonal-monoklonal

inhibitor-Hemmstoff

Imbruvica / Velcade-Cancer Drugs

Remica-Medication / Johnson & Johnson

antipsychotics-Neuroleptikum

atypically-atypisch

spillover effects / side effects-Nebenwirkungen

receptors-Rezeptoren

dopaminergic-dopaminerg

bioassay-Bioassay / Biology

genetics-Vererbungslehre

hallucinations-Halluzinationen

 

Medical Sector 8

 

 

Medicine / Medical Terminology / Professional Green Medically  Terms / Encyclopedia of Different Medically Significances & Meanings/ Translation EN / DE /
Medicine / Medical Terminology / Professional Green Medically Terms / Encyclopedia of Different Medically Significances & Meanings/ Translation EN / DE /

mental-mental

maniac-manisch

therapeutic-therapeutisch

benzodiazepine-Benzodiazepin

dyskinesia-Dyskinesie

symptoms-Symptome

titration-Titration

reuptake-Wiederaufnahme

thighbone-Schenkelknochen

albumin-Albumin / Biochemie

pregnancy-Schwangerschaft

nyctalopia-Nachtblindheit

cheekbone-Jochbein

chromonsome-Chromosome

membranous-membranös

Seroquel / Quetiapine-Seroquel / Psychotropic Drugs

lactase-Laktase

 

 

Medical Sector 9

 

autosomal-autosomal

ceruloplasmin-Ceruroplasmin / Biochemie

ganglia.Ganglien / Anatomic

psoriatic arthritis-psoriatische Arthritis

proteins-Proteine

bazillophobia-Bazillophobie / Psychology

barium swallow-Bariumschluck

barotitis-Barotitis

barotrauma-Bariotrauma / Medizin

bariatrics-Bariatrie

double helical DNA-Doppelstrang DNA

DNA binding-DNA bindend

puberty-Pubertät

benign-gutartig / MED

benzene-Benzol

biotechnology-Biotechnologie

 

Medical Sector 10

 

mask-like face-Maskengesicht

facelift-Gesichtsstraffung

anemia-Anämie

FAS Ligand-FAS Ligand

farsightedness-Weitsichtigkeit / Weitblick / Scharfsinn

fatigue.Ermüdung

fatty acid-Fettsäure / Chemie

bacteria-Bakterien

antigen-Abwehrstoff

FDA Approval-FDA Zulassung / Medical Technology + Pharmacy

total imaging matrix technology-Tim Technology / MedTed

medical orderly-Pfleger

medical restraint-Fixierung / Vorrichtung

fenestration-Fensterung

frostbite-Kälteschaden / Frostbeule / Erfrierung

 

Medical Sector 11

 

academic medicine-Schulmedizin

molecular and technical medicine-molekulare und technische Medizin / ggf Studienbezeichnung

department of medicine-medizinische Fakultät

hemolytic-hämolytisch

immune response-immologische Abwehrreaktion

medical power of attorney-medizinische Vorsorgeverfügung

tomography-Tomografie / Schichtaufnahmeverfahren

MRI / Magnetic Resonanz Imaging - funkntionelle MRI / Gehirnspintografie ( Röhre ) / CT-Scan

medical transcriptionist-medizinische Sekretärin

psoriasis-Schuppenflechte

dystonia-Dystonie

duloxetine-Duloxetine / Pharmaceutically

dumping syndrome-Dumpingsyndrom

,melioidosis-Whitemore-Krankheit / Medicine

ceftazidime-Ceftazidim / Pharma

lobectomy-Lobektomie

 

Medical Sector 12

 

polycystic-polyzystisch

fibrilate-fibrillieren / Von einem Muskel

lanugo-Wollhaar

scoliosis-Schiefwuchs / {m} [seitliche Rückgratverkrümmung]

congenital-angeboren

mesenchymal-mesenchymal

wear and tear-Abnutzung

esophageal-Speiseröhre

dystonia-Dystonie

almonds-Mandeln

carcinogenesis-Krebsenstehung

anaesthesia-Narkose 

hematology-Blutlehre

nephrology-Nephrology / Science +Medicine

ischemia-Mangeldurchblutung

Vareniciline-Vareneciline / Neurolpetics

ulcer-Geschwür

electronic medical record / elektronische Patientenakte

rhinitis-Schnupfen

 

Medical Sector 13

 

aerospace medicine-Luft- und Raumfahrtsmedizine

curative medicine-Kurativmedizin

dance medicine-Tanzmedizin

ecological medicine-ökologische Medizin

ENT Medicine-HNO Heilkunde

folk medicine-Volksheilkunde

laboratory hood-Abzug im Chemielabor ( Technology)

transferring doctor-überweisender Arzt ( Medizin)

referring physician-zuweisender Arzt / Zuweiser

dental laboratory-zahntechnisches Labor

abiotrophic-abiothrophisch

abacterial-steril / frei von Bakterien

biliary-gallicht

cartilaginoid-knorpelähnlich

carsick-reisekrank / beim Autofahren

cataleptoid-starr / Körper

ceruminal-zeruminös / Ohrenschmalz betreffend

 

Medicine Sector 14

 

cephalic-Kopf

cavernous-kavernös

cenesthesia-Vitalgefühl,Lebensgefühl, Leibempfindung, Gemeinempfindung

clinicopathologic-klinisch-pathologisch

clastogenic-clastogen

clinicoradiological-klinisch-radiologisch

collagenous-kollagen

coliform-koliähnlich

comatose-komatös

communicable-ansteckbar / übertragbar

coronoid-koronoid

cricked-verrenkt

costoabdominal-kostoabdominal / Veterinärmedizin

cryoconserved-kryoconverviert

Reiki-Treatment-Reikibehandlung

Reiki Therapy-Reiki Therapie

cave-cave / Kontraindikation / Cave +Nierensteine

 

Medicine Sector 15

 

calmative-beruhigend

antihypertensive-antihypertensive / blutdrucksenkend

atropine-Atropin / Chemie / Pharma

Stethoscope-STethoskop

medical consultant-Konsilirarius / Berater in der Medizin

continuing medical education -kontinuierliche berufsbgleitende Fortbildung / QM / Med

medical vehicle-Sanka / Sanitätskraftwagen

for medical use-für medizinische Zwecke

medical practitioner-praktischer Arzt

medical procedure-medizinische Prozedur

medical professionals-medizinische Fachkräfte

non medical practitioner-Heilpraktiker

prematernity medical care-Schwangerschaftsvorsorgeuntersuchung 

medical technical assistant-medizinisch technische Assistentin

to fill a medical prescription-ein ärztliches Rezept dispensieren

 

Medicine Sector 16

 

 

dosage-Dosierung

gene therapy-Genetherapie

cytokine-Cytokine

LDL Cholesterol-LDL Cholersterin

bempedoic-bempedoic / Medicaments

Repatha / Cardiac Medicaments

Praluent / Heart Medicine

metastatic-metastatisch

epidermal-epidermal

T-Cells-T-Zellen

ophthalmic-Augen

refractive-lichtbrechend

cytotoxic-zytotoxisch

tropical disease-tropische Krankheit

cataract-Linsentrübung

achilles heel Achilles Ferse

Achielles tendon Achillessehne

animal anatomy Tieranatomie

Anatomy Anatomie

pharmaceutical company Pharma-Konzern

 

Leonardo Da Vinci-( Körperbau Zeichner & Maler ) Prägte Jahrhunderte mit seinen Human bedingten Körperaufzeichnungs Abblder die Menschheit & Welt

 

Medicine Sector  17

 

This medicine is a marvel-Diese Medizin wirkt Wunder

apical apikal

chiropodial fußpflegerisch

choleretically choleretisch

chylous-chylös

cancer cell Krebszelle

cancer chemotherapy- Krebschemotherapie

increased incidence of cancer Anstieg de Krebsrate

CORONA COVID-19-pandemische Erkrankung seit 2020 1 Quartal weltweit bekannt

World Health Organization ( WHO ) Weltgesundheitsorganization  

American Association for Cancer Research-Amerikanische Gesellschaft for Krebsforschung

Harvard Medical School- Harvard Medizinische Schule/ Universität aus Boston / Nordamerika / Ostküste

 

Leonardo Da Vinci / Human Physics & Creation of Human Development & Such a Italian Genius & Professional /  Great Designer & Human Intelligence just Body Fibre Enthusiastically Doing Creator

 

Medicine Sector 18

 

ocular-Augen

ocular fundus-Augenhintergrund

ocular dominance-okulare Dominanz

ocular lubricant-Tränenersatzmittel

CT.Technology- Computertomography / Gehirnmessverfahren System / Gehirnwerte

ocular injury-Augenverletzung

ocular surface integrity-Integrität der Augenoberfläche

ocular motility test-Mobilitätstest

hospice-Hospiz

psychiatry-Psychiatrie

geriatric psychiatry-Alterpsychiatrie

emergeny ambulance-Notarztwagen

emergency room.Notaufnahme

emergency operating room-Notfall - Operationssaal

trauma-Trauma-Gewalteinwirkung

psychiatrist-Psychiater

concussion- Schädel Hirn Trauma

psychotrauma-seelisches Trauma

dementia-Demenz

Fingernails-Fingernägel

veins-Adern

neurology-Neurologie

 

Medicine Sector 19

 

shoulders- Schultern

spinal-Rückgrat

university neurology clinic-Universitäts Nevenklinik

wrist-Gelenk

ankle-Knöchel

thumb.Daumen

earlob-Ohrläppchen

lung-Lunge

liver-Leber

kidneys-Nieren

curative medicine-kurative Medizin

cough medicine-Hustenmedizine

dental anatomy.Dentalanatomy

abdominovaginal-abdominovaginal

abarticular-extraartikulär

acoustic-gehör ( Human )

adrenal-Nebennieren

antebrachial-Unterarm-

apocrine-apokrin

anterior-vorne

 

Medicine Sector 20

 

buccal-bukkal

bucally-backenwärts

carpal-karpal 

carpal-Handwurzel

caudal-kaudal

cecal-zäkal ( Tierkunde ) Biologie

centripetal-zentripetal ( Afferent) sensibles sensorisches Neuron

cerebral-Hirn

cerebriform-hirnähnlich

chorioretenal-Netzhaut / Aderhaut

corneal-Hornhaut  ( Des Auges )

cornificated-verhornt

colonic-Dickdarm

coracoid-rabenschnabelartig

costi-Rippen

coronary-koronar

coxal-koxal

craniofacial-Gesichtsschädel

distal-distal

 

Medicine Sector 21

 

dissected-seziert

diaphragmatic-Zwerchfell

dystopic-dystopisch ( Gegensatz von utopisch )

efferent-herausführend ( von einem Organ herkommend

World Health Organization- Weltgesundheitsorganization

pipet-Pipette

graduaded pipette-Messpipette

pipette carousel stand-Pipettenkarussell

dropper-Pipette ( Medical Engineering + Imaging ) Medizintechnik

amniographic-amniografisch

abacterial-keimfrei

abirritative-reizlindernd

bulging-sich vorwölbend

calculous-Stein

cardioplegic-kardioplegisch

caring-Pflege ( verpflegend)

carsick-reisekrank

chiropodial-fußpflegerisch ( Anatomie ) Human- Spezifisch

cicatricial-Narben

climateric-klimaterisch

contact-Kontakt ( Allergie )

convulsive-verkramft

cupped-geschröpft

 

Medicine Sector 22

 

cytophagus-zellfressend

cytogenic-zellbildend

curable-kurabel

crural-Schenkel

efferent-Zentrifugal ( motorisches Neuron )

embryologice-embryologisch

epicritic-epikritisch

erythroid-rot gefärbt

exoplasmic-exoplasmatisch

extracardial-extrakardial

febrifacient-fiebererregend

feminising-feminisierend

 

 

World Health Organization / WHO / Establishment 1948 / Incorporating Great Source for Humanity Health Operations /  Geneva Switzerland Headquarters /  World Health Globalization & Analytics of Healing Continents

 

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WHO / World Health Organization / PROTOKOLLIERUNG PDF / Nowadays situation also of COVID -19 Corona / News about World Medically Health Situation 2021
So the World Health Organization is a Delving Developed Health Organized Center & Authority for Taking Steps & Strides e.G in Research for better Human Posssibilities & Specific New Principles to find in the Medical Empowerment just new ways and specific innovative control of a better world. Better Chances to analyse & develope technologies for especially also the african continent and get better healthy circumstances for this world. The WHO is very intellectual developed in also get actively in responsibility & liability just get involved to get medicine created for better healthier civilization worldwide. This WHO is very engaged & busy in COVID-19 CORONA to create operating innovative a authoritary establishment of a very great movement to support Vaccine Technology & it's Medical Diversification in the Humankind.
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World Health Organization ( WHO ) Subsidiary from  ( UN ) United Nations from New York, North America /  Healthy State & Terrain and Space
World Health Organization ( WHO ) Subsidiary from ( UN ) United Nations from New York, North America / Healthy State & Terrain and Space

 

Geneva ( Genf ) Headquarters / European Continent / Switzerland / Foundation 7.April 1948 / Budget 10 Billion of US Dollars 2022. So this company  is a subsidiary of the United Nations ( UN) from New York.

So the World Health Organization is all about saving the children from India & Africa and different Places from the 3rd World. Saving the World for a more human friendly and almost cooperative healthy world. The ( WHO ) World Health Organization is very busy controlling nowadays the COVID-19 worldwide. So this splendid organization does take different systematically steps into a better future of world. It's dealing all about Health. ( WHO ) Infrastructure & Social Commitment it does hold to get into whole continents of securing & saving the Planet. Also in Civil Wars in Africa the (WHO ) is present & educated just proliferant. Main Destination from this Organization  is to clarify & get into scene of humanitarian support & health supervision of all Transcontinental & Intercontinental Regions of World. So Focal Point is Health 6 Order for everybody in the humankind & Human era,This Corporation does has it's Headquarters in Geneva ( German Genf ) Switzerland ( Schweiz ). This spot is not EU Affiliated. This literary Correspondence is also dedicated to all people of world just getting information that the ( WHO ) is caring by everybody in this happen. Tha Flag and it s logo is truly  developed & crystalizing into a complete Designer Piece of Arts just the Design on the blue Color above from this Protokollierung.

 

DE / Germany / Western Civilization / Protokollierung about the World Health Organization from 2022  just the ( WHO) / Protokoll 12.05.2022 ( Rewritten 16.05.2022 )

 

Medicine Sector 23

 

Laughter is the best medicine -Lachen ist die beste ( Medizin )

German Society of Aerospace Medicine- Deutsche Gesellschaft  für Luft & Raumfahrtmedizin

ear,nose & throat medicine-Ohren, Nasen & und Hals Medizin

cancer of the larynx-Kehlkopfkrebs

artificial larynx-Kehlkopfprotheser

endoscopic examination of the larynx, trachea & bronchi-Spiegelung von Kehlkopf, Luftröhre & Bronchien

Medicaid- Gesundheitsprogramm für Bedürftige 

Medical Service Centers-medizinische Vorsorgungs Zentren

COVID-19- Pandemische Erkankung / Pandemic / Since First Quarter 2020 Actively in whole world 

healing-Abheilung

bone healing-Knochenheilung

healing process- Heilungsprozess

med-medizinisch

med school-medizinische Fakultät

candidate in medicine.Kandidat der ( Medizin ) 

Doctor of Dental Science-Doktor der Zahnheilkunde

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry-Journal of Medicinal Chemisry  / Spezieller Journalismus über Medizin & Chemie

heart-protecting-herzschützend

 


Medicine / ( Latin ) Latein ( Medicina ) Protokoll 19.09.2022 / 

 

History of Antipsychotics in World / Past & Present in History Till Today

 

Antipsychotics have been broadly classified into classical/typical, which includes phenothiazines and butyrophenones, and atypical antipsychotics, which includes benzamides. The psychiatric effects of all the progeners of these groups were discovered serendipitously. Chlorpromazine, belonging to phenothiazines, heralded the “psychopharmacological era” and replaced biological therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, insulin coma, frontal lobotomy and simple sedation, causing an important revolution in psychiatric practice. Derivatives of phenothiazines, such as methylene blue, had been used since the nineteenth century in the dyeing industry (textile as well as histopathological preparations) and pharmaceuticals such as antiseptics and antihelmenthics.

 

A group of phenothiazine derivatives with an aminate chain were synthesized by a team led by Paul Charpentier to exploit the antihistaminic properties as pre-anesthetic medication. In 1949, Henri-Marie Laborit, a French army surgeon, used promethazine, a phenothiazine derivative, along with barbiturates, to prevent surgical shock and called this “lytic cocktail.” He also noticed that the patients who were extremely anxious were made calm, relaxed and indifferent to the surroundings. Agitated patients got subdued and co-operative as if they had a “pharmacological lobotomy.”

 

The research on phenothiazines continued until 1950, when a chlorinated derivative of promazine was developed: RP-4560, later named chlorpromazine, which not only had antihistaminic properties but was also adrenolytic, gangliolytic and antiemetic among many other effects. Laborit tried to convince psychiatrists about the therapeutic uses of the drug in psychiatry, in line of his hypothesis and observations, especially in sleep disorders. No one in the scientific community was enthused about it. Finally, Joseph Hammon tried it for the first time in 1952 on a manic patient. The patient not only calmed down but was also able to maintain this state. He was eventually discharged after 3 weeks. Researchers almost disregarded this effect because the patient was on other medication, such as barbiturates, opiates and electro-convulsive therapy. In the same year, Jean Delay and Deniker conducted a study using chlorpromazine alone and observed a group of symptoms with decreased motor activity and affective indifference. They named the constellation of symptoms as “neuroleptic syndrome.” The word neuroleptic was suggested by Jean Delay in 1955, which meant “that take the nerve.” The duo further went on to present six clinical reports on 38 patients with mania and psychosis and confirmed the effectiveness of chlorpromazine. Heinz Lehmann, a psychiatrist from Berlin and a refugee residing in Canada, published similar articles on the use of chlorpromazine exhaustively over several years. He used the drug in different psychiatric conditions with psychomotor agitation (acute and chronic mania, schizophrenia, senile psychosis, post lobotomy and mentally challenged). He obtained positive results in 66%, but the response was the best in patients with manic depression, who were manageable within 24 hours, subsequently, having fewer relapses. He also cautioned that, in patients with chronic schizophrenia who were nonresponders, the possible toxic effects of the drug prevailed. In 1954, Elkes and Elkes conducted a historic study on psychotic patients, which was randomized and placebo-controlled, showing the effectiveness of chlorpromazine. Eventually chlorpromazine started being accepted by psychiatrists all over the world, although a slow start. Thus, it paved the way for the “neuro-biological” basis of psychiatric illnesses.[1]

 

Haloperidol belongs to butyrophenones and was synthesized in 1958 at a Belgian laboratory by Paul Janssen. Janssen laboratories were then trying to develop a more powerful analgesic than dextromoramide. They used pethidine, the byproducts of which were named butyrophenones and haloperidol was the 45th of the series, R-1625. They observed that it was poorer an analgesic compared with opioids. However, the experimental mice were sedated and went into a cataleptic state similar to that produced by chlorpromazine, after an initial state of excitation. First clinical studies were conducted by Bloch on patients with delirium tremens. It resulted in no significant sedation except for hypotension. After a few weeks of its synthesis, the drug was used intravenously on a psychiatric patient with an emotional crisis by a resident physician Pinchard. The patient became considerably calm and later went into a state of sedation. Studies conducted all over Belgium with this drug showed outstanding results in agitated patients but its hallucinolytic effects surpassed the others. Delay and Deniker conducted studies in France on this drug as well and obtained similar results. However, they warned of its extrapyramidal side-effects similar to the effects of chlorpromazine. Haloperidol has also been considered very efficient in paranoid states.[2]

 

After the advent of chlorpromazine, other drugs such as haloperidol, trifluperazine, thioridazine and fluphenazine came into use. All were found to have comparable efficacy, but had serious neurological side-effects such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome. The search continued for a neuroleptic with lesser side-effects. In 1958, a group of tricyclic compounds was synthesized, based on the antidepressant imipramine in a Swiss laboratory. Some of these compounds were found to have neuroleptic properties. One of them was clozapine. The initial studies by Wander in 1959 obtained mixed results, but one of them was significant; clozapine did not cause catalepsy in animal studies. In 1962, Gross and Langner conducted trials with human subjects and found the drug to be ineffective for psychosis. In 1966, Hanns Hippius, a German researcher, was asked to continue the trials on humans by Wander. The results confirmed that clozapine was an effective antipsychotic with no disabling neurological side-effects. The psychiatric community remained sceptical because the drug lacked side-effects. They believed that if there are no Parkinsonian symptoms, the drug is not a true antipsychotic. The more pronounced the extrapyramidal symptoms were, the more effective the drug was. Despite this belief, there were many patients with schizophrenia that were placed on clozapine.

 

Finally, after several large trials summarized by Stille and Hippius, clozapine was launched into the market in several European countries. In 1973, Gilbert Honigfeld, a clinical psychologist, started open-label phase-2 trials on prison inmates in the USA. The inmates experienced increased heart rate and syncope due to orthostatic hypotension even with lower doses (25-75 mg). This finding was never mentioned in the earlier literature. The solution was to titrate the dose slowly up to a tolerable level, starting from a smaller dose. In 1974, open-label studies were conducted on schizophrenic patients by Simpson and Varga and double-blind clinical trials by Shopsin, Klein, Aaronson and Collora. Later, many multicentered trials of clozapine vs. chlorpromazine were conducted. When clozapine was gradually being accepted as a promising antipsychotic, an adversity befell upon it. In 1975, the Journal, Lancet, reported that 18 patients had developed severe blood dyscrasia. Sixteen of them had agranulocytosis with nine deaths. This was reported from Finland by Idanpaan- Heikkila, Alhava, Olkinvoura and Palva. The government agencies then ordered clozapine to be removed from the market in Finland as well as the other European countries. Later studies all over the world showed that agranulocytosis was 20-times higher in south-western Finland compared with the rest of the world. The exact causes for this Finnish “epidemic” were not known. In the meanwhile, agranulocytosis and sudden death with chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines were also reported. Shopsin et al. reported that the worldwide incidence of agranulocytosis with clozapine (0.3%) was similar to chlorpromazine (0.1-1.0%). However, there were controversial findings in some of the later studies. Amsler, Teerenhovi, Barth, Harjula and Vuopio did a thorough analysis and found that agranulocytosis occurred within the first 3 months, whether fatal or not, and deaths were due to secondary infection and delays in the detection or lack of preventive measures. This fact led to the mandatory weekly checks of white cell counts in the blood for the first 18 weeks. Until then, clozapine was restricted to compassionate use for treatment-resistant cases of schizophrenia. Later on, the worldwide support for clozapine grew and was also reported to be used in children with Tourette's syndrome successfully by Caine, Polinsky, Kartzinel and Ebert. In 1984, a 6-week double-blind study was conducted at 16 sites in the USA comparing clozapine with chlorpromazine. Clozapine was shown to have a definite superiority over chlorpromazine. The improvement not only continued even after 6 weeks, but the drug worked for positive as well as negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Kane, Henigfeld, Singer and Meltzer, finally, were able to show clozapine to be an effective antipsychotic without extrapyramidal symptoms and hence named it “atypical.” Although it had other benign side-effects, such as drowsiness, hypersalivation, hypotension and a propensity to decrease seizure threshold, clozapine continues to be the drug of choice for treatment refractory schizophrenia.

 

Although the process of scientific drug development is slow and tedious, clozapine still emerged victorious. The 1990s was the decade that witnessed the advent of several other atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and similar drugs. These were considered as effective as the other antipsychotics and had the least propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects, but had other side-effects innate to the group, such as metabolic syndrome. While we compare the typical antipsychotics with the atypicals in terms of their effectiveness and side-effect profile, none seems to be more superior compared with the other. We have come a long way from insulin therapy and prefrontal lobotomies to compounds that not only are effective antipsychotics but also help patients to lead a better life, despite some of the side-effects. The search continues to develop drugs that address all aspects of the illness, the positive, the negative and the cognitive symptoms, and for that “ideal” antipsychotic.

 

 

Pharmaceutically Pollution of World  Rivers / Geographically Map
Pharmaceutically Pollution of World Rivers / Geographically Map

 

 

( CT ) Scan ( Comprehensive Opportunities & Possibilties in Computertomography ) TECHNOLOGY & System in Medicine in World 

 

A computed tomography scan (usually abbreviated to CT scan; formerly called computed axial tomography scan or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique used to obtain detailed internal images of the body. The personnel that perform CT scans are called radiographers or radiology technologists.[2][3]

 

CT scanners use a rotating X-ray tube and a row of detectors placed in a gantry to measure X-ray attenuations by different tissues inside the body. The multiple X-ray measurements taken from different angles are then processed on a computer using tomographic reconstruction algorithms to produce tomographic (cross-sectional) images (virtual "slices") of a body. CT scan can be used in patients with metallic implants or pacemakers, for whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is contraindicated.

 

Since its development in the 1970s, CT scanning has proven to be a versatile imaging technique. While CT is most prominently used in medical diagnosis, it can also be used to form images of non-living objects. The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to South African-American physicist Allan M. Cormack and British electrical engineer Godfrey N. Hounsfield "for the development of computer-assisted tomography"

 

Spiral CT

 

Drawing of CT fan beam and patient in a CT imaging system

Spinning tube, commonly called spiral CT, or helical CT, is an imaging technique in which an entire X-ray tube is spun around the central axis of the area being scanned. These are the dominant type of scanners on the market because they have been manufactured longer and offer a lower cost of production and purchase. The main limitation of this type of CT is the bulk and inertia of the equipment (X-ray tube assembly and detector array on the opposite side of the circle) which limits the speed at which the equipment can spin. Some designs use two X-ray sources and detector arrays offset by an angle, as a technique to improve temporal resolution.[5][6]

 

Electron beam tomography

 

 

Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of CT in which a large enough X-ray tube is constructed so that only the path of the electrons, travelling between the cathode and anode of the X-ray tube, are spun using deflection coils.[7] This type had a major advantage since sweep speeds can be much faster, allowing for less blurry imaging of moving structures, such as the heart and arteries.[8] Fewer scanners of this design have been produced when compared with spinning tube types, mainly due to the higher cost associated with building a much larger X-ray tube and detector array and limited anatomical coverage.[9]

 

Dual source CT

 

Dual source CT is an advanced scanner with a two X-ray tube detector system, unlike conventional single tube systems.[10][11] These two detector systems are mounted on a single gantry at 90° in the same plane.[12] Dual source Ct scanner allow fast scanning with higher temporal resolution by acquiring a full CT slice in only half a rotation. Fast imaging reduces motion blurring at high heart rates and potentially allowing for shorter breath-hold time. This is particularly useful for ill patients having difficulty holding their breath or unable to take heart-rate lowering medication.[13][14]

 

CT perfusion imaging

 

CT perfusion imaging is a specific form of CT to assess flow through blood vessels whilst injecting a contrast agent.[13] Blood flow, blood transit time, and organ blood volume, can all be calculated with reasonable sensitivity and specificity.[13] This type of CT may be used on the heart, although sensitivity and specificity for detecting abnormalities are still lower than for other forms of CT.[15] This may also be used on the brain, where CT perfusion imaging can often detect poor brain perfusion well before it is detected using a conventional spiral CT scan.[13][16] This is better for stroke diagnosis than other CT types.[16]

 

Medical use

 

Since its introduction in the 1970s,[17] CT has become an important tool in medical imaging to supplement conventional X-ray imaging and medical ultrasonography. It has more recently been used for preventive medicine or screening for disease, for example, CT colonography for people with a high risk of colon cancer, or full-motion heart scans for people with a high risk of heart disease. Several institutions offer full-body scans for the general population although this practice goes against the advice and official position of many professional organizations in the field primarily due to the radiation dose applied.[18]

The use of CT scans has increased dramatically over the last two decades in many countries.[19] An estimated 72 million scans were performed in the United States in 2007 and more than 80 million in 2015.

CT scanning of the head is typically used to detect infarction (stroke), tumors, calcifications, haemorrhage, and bone trauma.[22] Of the above, hypodense (dark) structures can indicate edema and infarction, hyperdense (bright) structures indicate calcifications and haemorrhage and bone trauma can be seen as disjunction in bone windows. Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema. CT scanning of the head is also used in CT-guided stereotactic surgery and radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial tumors, arteriovenous malformations, and other surgically treatable conditions using a device known as the N-localizer.[23][24][25][26][27][28]

 

Neck

 

Contrast CT is generally the initial study of choice for neck masses in adults.[29] CT of the thyroid plays an important role in the evaluation of thyroid cancer.[30] CT scan often incidentally finds thyroid abnormalities, and so is often the preferred investigation modality for thyroid abnormalities.[30]

 

Lungs

 

 

A CT scan can be used for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma, the tissue of the lungs.[31] It is particularly relevant here because normal two-dimensional X-rays do not show such defects. A variety of techniques are used, depending on the suspected abnormality. For evaluation of chronic interstitial processes such as emphysema, and fibrosis,[32] thin sections with high spatial frequency reconstructions are used; often scans are performed both on inspiration and expiration. This special technique is called high resolution CT that produces a sampling of the lung, and not continuous images.[33]

 

( Interpretation of results )

 

 

( Presentation )

 

Types of presentations of CT scans:

- Average intensity projection

- Maximum intensity projection

- Thin slice (median plane)

- Volume rendering by high and low threshold for radiodensity

The result of a CT scan is a volume of voxels, which may be presented to a human observer by various methods, which broadly fit into the following categories:

 

Slices (of varying thickness). Thin slice is generally regarded as planes representing a thickness of less than 3 mm.[80][81] Thick slice is generally regarded as planes representing a thickness between 3 mm and 5 mm.[81][82]

Projection, including maximum intensity projection[83] and average intensity projection

Volume rendering (VR)[83]

Technically, all volume renderings become projections when viewed on a 2-dimensional display, making the distinction between projections and volume renderings a bit vague. The epitomes of volume rendering models feature a mix of for example coloring and shading in order to create realistic and observable representations.[84][85]

 

Two-dimensional CT images are conventionally rendered so that the view is as though looking up at it from the patient's feet.[86] Hence, the left side of the image is to the patient's right and vice versa, while anterior in the image also is the patient's anterior and vice versa. This left-right interchange corresponds to the view that physicians generally have in reality when positioned in front of patients.[87]

 

Grayscale

 

Pixels in an image obtained by CT scanning are displayed in terms of relative radiodensity. The pixel itself is displayed according to the mean attenuation of the tissue(s) that it corresponds to on a scale from +3,071 (most attenuating) to −1,024 (least attenuating) on the Hounsfield scale. A pixel is a two dimensional unit based on the matrix size and the field of view. When the CT slice thickness is also factored in, the unit is known as a voxel, which is a three-dimensional unit.[88] Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU), while air is −1,000 HU, cancellous bone is typically +400 HU, and cranial bone can reach 2,000 HU.[89] The attenuation of metallic implants depends on the atomic number of the element used: Titanium usually has an amount of +1000 HU, iron steel can completely extinguish the X-ray and is, therefore, responsible for well-known line-artifacts in computed tomograms. Artifacts are caused by abrupt transitions between low- and high-density materials, which results in data values that exceed the dynamic range of the processing electronics.[90]

 

Windowing

 

CT data sets have a very high dynamic range which must be reduced for display or printing. This is typically done via a process of "windowing", which maps a range (the "window") of pixel values to a grayscale ramp. For example, CT images of the brain are commonly viewed with a window extending from 0 HU to 80 HU. Pixel values of 0 and lower, are displayed as black; values of 80 and higher are displayed as white; values within the window are displayed as a grey intensity proportional to position within the window.[91] The window used for display must be matched to the X-ray density of the object of interest, in order to optimize the visible detail.[92]

 

Multiplanar reconstruction and projections

 

Special planes are sometimes useful, such as this oblique longitudinal plane in order to visualize the neuroforamina of the vertebral column, showing narrowing at two levels, causing radiculopathy. The smaller images are axial plane slices.

Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) is the process of converting data from one anatomical plane (usually transverse) to other planes. It can be used for thin slices as well as projections. Multiplanar reconstruction is possible as present CT scanners provide almost isotropic resolution.[93]

MPR is used almost in every scan. The spine is frequently examined with it.[94] An image of the spine in axial plane can only show one vertebral bone at a time and cannot show its relation with other vertebral bones. By reformatting the data in other planes, visualization of the relative position can be achieved in sagittal and coronal plane.[95]

New software allows the reconstruction of data in non-orthogonal (oblique) planes, which help in the visualization of organs which are not in orthogonal planes.[96][97] It is better suited for visualization of the anatomical structure of the bronchi as they do not lie orthogonal to the direction of the scan.[98]

Curved-plane reconstruction is performed mainly for the evaluation of vessels. This type of reconstruction helps to straighten the bends in a vessel, thereby helping to visualize a whole vessel in a single image or in multiple images. After a vessel has been "straightened", measurements such as cross-sectional area and length can be made. This is helpful in preoperative assessment of a surgical procedure.[99]

For 2D projections used in radiation therapy for quality assurance and planning of external beam radiotherapy, including digitally reconstructed radiographs, see Beam's eye view.

 

( Volume Rendering )

 

3D human skull from computed tomography data

A threshold value of radiodensity is set by the operator (e.g., a level that corresponds to bone). With the help of edge detection image processing algorithms a 3D model can be constructed from the initial data and displayed on screen. Various thresholds can be used to get multiple models, each anatomical component such as muscle, bone and cartilage can be differentiated on the basis of different colours given to them. However, this mode of operation cannot show interior structures.[101]

 

Surface rendering is limited technique as it displays only the surfaces that meet a particular threshold density, and which are towards the viewer. However, In volume rendering, transparency, colours and shading are used which makes it easy to present a volume in a single image. For example, Pelvic bones could be displayed as semi-transparent, so that, even viewing at an oblique angle one part of the image does not hide another.[102]

 

( Image Quality )

 

Low-dose CT scan of the thorax.

Standard-dose CT scan of the thorax.

Dose versus image quality

An important issue within radiology today is how to reduce the radiation dose during CT examinations without compromising the image quality. In general, higher radiation doses result in higher-resolution images,[103] while lower doses lead to increased image noise and unsharp images. However, increased dosage raises the adverse side effects, including the risk of radiation-induced cancer – a four-phase abdominal CT gives the same radiation dose as 300 chest X-rays.[104] Several methods that can reduce the exposure to ionizing radiation during a CT scan exist.[105]

 

New software technology can significantly reduce the required radiation dose. New iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithms (e.g., iterative Sparse Asymptotic Minimum Variance) could offer super-resolution without requiring higher radiation dose.

Individualize the examination and adjust the radiation dose to the body type and body organ examined. Different body types and organs require different amounts of radiation.[107]

Higher resolution is not always suitable, such as detection of small pulmonary masses.[108]

Artifacts

 

Although images produced by CT are generally faithful representations of the scanned volume, the technique is susceptible to a number of artifacts, such as the following:[109][110]Chapters 3 and 5

 

Streak artifact

 

Streaks are often seen around materials that block most X-rays, such as metal or bone. Numerous factors contribute to these streaks: under sampling, photon starvation, motion, beam hardening, and Compton scatter. This type of artifact commonly occurs in the posterior fossa of the brain, or if there are metal implants. The streaks can be reduced using newer reconstruction techniques.[111] Approaches such as metal artifact reduction (MAR) can also reduce this artifact.[112][113] MAR techniques include spectral imaging, where CT images are taken with photons of different energy levels, and then synthesized into monochromatic images with special software such as GSI (Gemstone Spectral Imaging).[114]

 

( Partial volume effect )

 

This appears as "blurring" of edges. It is due to the scanner being unable to differentiate between a small amount of high-density material (e.g., bone) and a larger amount of lower density (e.g., cartilage).[115] The reconstruction assumes that the X-ray attenuation within each voxel is homogeneous; this may not be the case at sharp edges. This is most commonly seen in the z-direction (craniocaudal direction), due to the conventional use of highly anisotropic voxels, which have a much lower out-of-plane resolution, than in-plane resolution. This can be partially overcome by scanning using thinner slices, or an isotropic acquisition on a modern scanner.[116]

 

Ring artifact

 

Probably the most common mechanical artifact, the image of one or many "rings" appears within an image. They are usually caused by the variations in the response from individual elements in a two dimensional X-ray detector due to defect or miscalibration.[117] Ring artifacts can largely be reduced by intensity normalization, also referred to as flat field correction.[118] Remaining rings can be suppressed by a transformation to polar space, where they become linear stripes.[117] A comparative evaluation of ring artefact reduction on X-ray tomography images showed that the method of Sijbers and Postnov can effectively suppress ring artefacts.[119]

 

Noise

 

This appears as grain on the image and is caused by a low signal to noise ratio. This occurs more commonly when a thin slice thickness is used. It can also occur when the power supplied to the X-ray tube is insufficient to penetrate the anatomy.[120]

 

Windmill

 

Streaking appearances can occur when the detectors intersect the reconstruction plane. This can be reduced with filters or a reduction in pitch.[121][122]

 

Beam hardening

 

This can give a "cupped appearance" when grayscale is visualized as height. It occurs because conventional sources, like X-ray tubes emit a polychromatic spectrum. Photons of higher photon energy levels are typically attenuated less. Because of this, the mean energy of the spectrum increases when passing the object, often described as getting "harder". This leads to an effect increasingly underestimating material thickness, if not corrected. Many algorithms exist to correct for this artifact. They can be divided in mono- and multi-material methods.[111][123][124]

 

Advantages

 

CT scanning has several advantages over traditional two-dimensional medical radiography. First, CT eliminates the superimposition of images of structures outside the area of interest.[125] Second, CT scans have greater image resolution, enabling examination of finer details. CT can distinguish between tissues that differ in radiographic density by 1% or less.[126] Third, CT scanning enables multiplanar reformatted imaging: scan data can be visualized in the transverse (or axial), coronal, or sagittal plane, depending on the diagnostic task.[127]

 

The improved resolution of CT has permitted the development of new investigations. For example, CT angiography avoids the invasive insertion of a catheter. CT scanning can perform a virtual colonoscopy with greater accuracy and less discomfort for the patient than a traditional colonoscopy.[128][129] Virtual colonography is far more accurate than a barium enema for detection of tumors and uses a lower radiation dose.[130]

 

CT is a moderate- to high-radiation diagnostic technique. The radiation dose for a particular examination depends on multiple factors: volume scanned, patient build, number and type of scan sequences, and desired resolution and image quality.[131] Two helical CT scanning parameters, tube current and pitch, can be adjusted easily and have a profound effect on radiation. CT scanning is more accurate than two-dimensional radiographs in evaluating anterior interbody fusion, although they may still over-read the extent of fusion.[132]

 

( Adverse effects )

 

Cancer

 

The radiation used in CT scans can damage body cells, including DNA molecules, which can lead to radiation-induced cancer.[133] The radiation doses received from CT scans is variable. Compared to the lowest dose x-ray techniques, CT scans can have 100 to 1,000 times higher dose than conventional X-rays.[134] However, a lumbar spine x-ray has a similar dose as a head CT.[135] Articles in the media often exaggerate the relative dose of CT by comparing the lowest-dose x-ray techniques (chest x-ray) with the highest-dose CT techniques. In general, the radiation dose associated with a routine abdominal CT has a radiation dose similar to three years of average background radiation.[136]

 

Recent[when?] studies on 2.5 million patients[137] and 3.2 million patients[138] have drawn attention to high cumulative doses of more than 100 mSv to patients undergoing recurrent CT scans within a short time span of 1 to 5 years.

 

Some experts note that CT scans are known to be "overused," and "there is distressingly little evidence of better health outcomes associated with the current high rate of scans."[134] On the other hand, a recent paper analyzing the data of patients who received high cumulative doses showed a high degree of appropriate use.[139] This creates an important issue of cancer risk to these patients. Moreover, a highly significant finding that was previously unreported is that some patients received >100 mSv dose from CT scans in a single day,[137] which counteracts existing criticisms some investigators may have on the effects of protracted versus acute exposure.

 

Early estimates of harm from CT are partly based on similar radiation exposures experienced by those present during the atomic bomb explosions in Japan after the Second World War and those of nuclear industry workers.[133] Some experts project that in the future, between three and five percent of all cancers would result from medical imaging.[134]

 

An Australian study of 10.9 million people reported that the increased incidence of cancer after CT scan exposure in this cohort was mostly due to irradiation. In this group, one in every 1,800 CT scans was followed by an excess cancer. If the lifetime risk of developing cancer is 40% then the absolute risk rises to 40.05% after a CT.[140][141]Some studies have shown that publications indicating an increased risk of cancer from typical doses of body CT scans are plagued with serious methodological limitations and several highly improbable results,[142] concluding that no evidence indicates such low doses cause any long-term harm.[143][144][145] One study estimated that as many as 0.4% of cancers in the United States resulted from CT scans, and that this may have increased to as much as 1.5 to 2% based on the rate of CT use in 2007.[133] Others dispute this estimate,[146] as there is no consensus that the low levels of radiation used in CT scans cause damage. Lower radiation doses are used in many cases, such as in the investigation of renal colic.[147] A person's age plays a significant role in the subsequent risk of cancer.[148] Estimated lifetime cancer mortality risks from an abdominal CT of a one-year-old is 0.1%, or 1:1000 scans.[148] The risk for someone who is 40 years old is half that of someone who is 20 years old with substantially less risk in the elderly.[148] The International Commission on Radiological Protection estimates that the risk to a fetus being exposed to 10 mGy (a unit of radiation exposure) increases the rate of cancer before 20 years of age from 0.03% to 0.04% (for reference a CT pulmonary angiogram exposes a fetus to 4 mGy).[149] A 2012 review did not find an association between medical radiation and cancer risk in children noting however the existence of limitations in the evidences over which the review is based.[150]

 

CT scans can be performed with different settings for lower exposure in children with most manufacturers of CT scans as of 2007 having this function built in.[151] Furthermore, certain conditions can require children to be exposed to multiple CT scans.[133] Current evidence suggests informing parents of the risks of pediatric CT scanning.[152]

 

Contrast reactions

 

In the United States half of CT scans are contrast CTs using intravenously injected radiocontrast agents.[153] The most common reactions from these agents are mild, including nausea, vomiting, and an itching rash. Severe life-threatening reactions may rarely occur.[154] Overall reactions occur in 1 to 3% with nonionic contrast and 4 to 12% of people with ionic contrast.[155] Skin rashes may appear within a week to 3% of people.[154]

 

The old radiocontrast agents caused anaphylaxis in 1% of cases while the newer, low-osmolar agents cause reactions in 0.01–0.04% of cases.[154][156] Death occurs in about 2 to 30 people per 1,000,000 administrations, with newer agents being safer.[155][157] There is a higher risk of mortality in those who are female, elderly or in poor health, usually secondary to either anaphylaxis or acute kidney injury.[153]

 

The contrast agent may induce contrast-induced nephropathy.[158] This occurs in 2 to 7% of people who receive these agents, with greater risk in those who have preexisting kidney failure,[158] preexisting diabetes, or reduced intravascular volume. People with mild kidney impairment are usually advised to ensure full hydration for several hours before and after the injection. For moderate kidney failure, the use of iodinated contrast should be avoided; this may mean using an alternative technique instead of CT. Those with severe kidney failure requiring dialysis require less strict precautions, as their kidneys have so little function remaining that any further damage would not be noticeable and the dialysis will remove the contrast agent; it is normally recommended, however, to arrange dialysis as soon as possible following contrast administration to minimize any adverse effects of the contrast.

 

In addition to the use of intravenous contrast, orally administered contrast agents are frequently used when examining the abdomen.[159] These are frequently the same as the intravenous contrast agents, merely diluted to approximately 10% of the concentration. However, oral alternatives to iodinated contrast exist, such as very dilute (0.5–1% w/v) barium sulfate suspensions. Dilute barium sulfate has the advantage that it does not cause allergic-type reactions or kidney failure, but cannot be used in patients with suspected bowel perforation or suspected bowel injury, as leakage of barium sulfate from damaged bowel can cause fatal peritonitis.[160]

 

Side effects from contrast agents, administered intravenously in some CT scans, might impair kidney performance in patients with kidney disease, although this risk is now believed to be lower than previously thought.[161]

 

CANON ( Japan ) Corporation / Technology /  Tokyo / Asia / Protokollierungen from Annual Report /  Protokoll 22.09.2022

 

 

CT-Technology / Canon / Asia / Japan / Tokyo / Medical Opportunities for better ( Healthcare ) in World / Protokoll 22.09.2022

 

 

Canon Inc. (キヤノン株式会社, Kyanon kabushiki gaisha) is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optical, imaging, and industrial products, such as lenses, cameras, medical equipment, scanners, printers, and semiconductor manufacturing equipment.[3][4]Canon has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the TOPIX Core30 and Nikkei 225 index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.

The company was originally named Seikikōgaku kenkyūsho (Jpn. 精機光学研究所, Precision Optical Industry Co. Ltd.). In 1934 it produced the Kwanon, a prototype for Japan's first-ever 35 mm camera with a focal-plane-based shutter.[5] In 1947 the company name was changed to Canon Camera Co., Inc.,[5] shortened to Canon Inc. in 1969. The name Canon comes from Buddhist bodhisattva Kannon (観音, "Guanyin"), previously transliterated as Kuanyin, Kwannon, or Kwanon in English.

 

(1937–1970 )

 

The origins of Canon date back to the founding of Precision Optical Instruments Laboratory in Japan in 1933[6] by Takeshi Mitarai, Goro Yoshida, Saburo Uchida and Takeo Maeda. It became the company Precision Optical Instruments, Co., Ltd. in 1937.[6] During its early years the company did not have any facilities to produce its own optical glass, and its first cameras incorporated Nikkor lenses from Nippon Kogaku K.K. (the later Nikon Corporation).[7]

 

 

Between 1933 and 1936, 'The Kwanon', a copy of the Leica design, Japan's first 35 mm focal-plane-shutter camera, was developed in prototype form.[8] In 1940 Canon developed Japan's first indirect X-ray camera. Canon introduced a field zoom lens for television broadcasting in 1958 and in 1959 introduced the Reflex Zoom 8, the world's first movie camera with a zoom lens, and the Canonflex.

 

 

In 1961, Canon introduced the Rangefinder camera, Canon 7, and 50mm 1:0.95 lens in a special bayonet mount. In 1964 Canon introduced the 'Canola 130', the first Japanese made 10-key calculator, a substantial improvement on the design of the British Bell Punch company, which introduced the first fully electronic calculator two years earlier with the Sumlock Anita Mark 8 unit. In 1965 Canon introduced the Canon Pellix, a single lens reflex (SLR) camera with a semi-transparent stationary mirror which enabled the taking of pictures through the mirror.

 

( 1970–2009 )

 

In 1971, Canon introduced the Canon F-1, a high-end SLR camera, and the FD lens range. In 1976, Canon launched the Canon AE-1, the world's first camera with an embedded micro-computer.[9]

Canon introduced their Inkjet printer using bubble-jet technology in 1985, one year after Hewlett-Packard. In 1987, Canon introduced their Canon Electro-Optical System (EOS), named after the goddess of the dawn, along with the Canon EOS 650 autofocus SLR camera. Also in 1987, the Canon Foundation was established. In 1988, Canon introduced 'Kyosei philosophy'.[10] The EOS 1 Flagship Professional SLR line was launched in 1989.[11] In the same year the EOS RT, the world's first AF SLR with a fixed, semi-transparent pellicle mirror, was unveiled.

In 1992, Canon launched the Canon EOS 5, the first-ever camera with eye-controlled AF, and the PowerShot 600, its first digital camera.[12] In 1995, Canon introduced the first commercially available SLR lens with internal image stabilization, Canon EF 75-300mm lens f/4-5.6 IS USM. The Canon EOS-RS was the world's fastest AF SLR camera with a continuous shooting speed of 10 frame/s at the time. Based on the EOS-1N, the EOS-1N RS had a fixed, semi-transparent pellicle mirror with a hard coat. In 1996, Canon introduced a pocket-sized digital camera with the Advanced Photo System, named ELPH in America and IXUS in Europe. Canon entered the digital video camcorder market in 1997.

 

In 2004, Canon introduced the XEED SX50 LCD projector.[13] Canon introduced its first high-definition camcorder in 2005.[14]

In November 2009, Canon made a €730 million (US$1.1 billion) all-cash offer for the Dutch printer maker Océ.[15] Canon had acquired majority ownership of Océ by March 2010,[16] and completed the acquisition of 100% of shares in Océ by the end of 2011.[17]

 

( 2010–2020 )

 

In 2010, Canon acquired Tereck Office Solutions, Inc.[18]

 

On 16 March 2010, Canon announced that it was seeking to acquire a new .canon generic top-level domain, acquiring it in February 2015 and using it for the first time on its global website in May 2016.[19][20]

 

In the third quarter of 2012, Canon's global market share in the sale of printers, copiers and multifunction devices was 20.90%.[21]

 

In early 2013, Canon USA moved into a new US$500 million headquarters in Melville, New York.[22][23]

 

In February 2014, Canon announced it would acquire Texas-based Molecular Imprints Inc., a developer of nanoprint lithography systems, for an amount speculated to be around US$98 million.[24]

 

On 13 June 2014, Canon announced it had acquired Danish IP Surveillance VMS software company Milestone Systems. Milestone provides open-platform software to allow video management from various vendors in a single interface; therefore the company will operate as a separate entity.[25]

 

On 10 February 2015, Canon announced that it had intentions to buy Swedish Security Camera maker Axis Communications for US$2.83 billion.[26] On 23 February 2015, Axis Communications reacted to this news and confirmed that it had received a purchase proposal from Canon. The purchase was effectively completed in April 2015.[27]

 

On 24 April 2015, Canon Europe announced it had acquired the London-based family photo sharing startup Lifecake.[28][29]

 

In November 2015, in an effort to avoid the selling of gray-market camera gear, Canon USA filed litigation against a number of camera gear retailers. Retailers include Get It Digital, All New Shop and F&E Trading.[30]

 

In March 2016, Canon acquired Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation for US$5.9 billion.[31]

 

On 28 March 2017, Canon Europe announced it had acquired the London-based printing startup Kite.[32][33]

 

On 2 April 2019, Canon introduces two new UHDgc 2/3-inch Portable Zoom Lenses designed For 4K UHD Broadcast Cameras.[34]

 

In July 2020, Canon recorded its first ever quarterly loss due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[35]

 

In September 2020, Fujitsu announced that it would provide Canon with a Fujitsu Supercomputer PRIMEHPC FX1000 unit, to assist with its no-prototype development manufacturing initiative.[36]

In December 2020, Canon concluded its photographic-equipment print-ad series named "Wildlife as Canon Sees It". This series of ads began in 1981 in National Geographic magazine.[37]

 

 

( Products)

 

Canon's products include cameras (including compact digital camera, video camera, film SLR and digital SLR), camcorders, lenses, broadcasting equipment and solutions (such as free viewpoint solution), professional displays, projectors, manufacturing equipment (including photolitography equipment such as steppers, scanners), printers, photocopiers, image scanners, digital microfilm scanners, fax machines, binoculars, microscopes, medical equipment (including diagnostic systems such as ultrasound, X-ray, CT and MRI scanners and ophthalmic equipment), CCTV solutions, image sensors, calculators, high precision positioning and measurement devices (such as rotary encoders), custom optical components, handy terminals, mixed reality systems, software, and space satellites.[38][39]

 

( Digital cameras )

 

Main articles: Canon PowerShot, Canon PowerShot G, Canon Digital IXUS, Canon EOS, Canon EF lens mount, Canon EF-S lens mount, Canon EF-M lens mount, and Canon RF lens mount

Canon has been manufacturing and distributing digital cameras since 1984, starting with the RC-701. The RC series was followed by the PowerShot and Digital IXUS series of digital cameras. Canon also developed the EOS series of digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) which includes high-end professional models.

Due to consumers switching from compact cameras to smartphones, Canon's Q1 2013 operating profit fell 34 percent year-on-year.[40]

 

( Flash units )

 

Canon produces a range of high-output flash units for its DSLR cameras, including the 270EX II, 320EX, 430EX II / 430EX III-RT, 470EX-AI, 580EX / 580EX II, 600EX-RT / 600EXII-RT and EL-1 Speedlites. Canon also produces macro flash units including the Macro Twin Lite and the Macro Ring Lite.

 

( Camcorders)

 

 

(CMOS Image sensor)

 

Canon designs and manufactures CMOS image sensors in-house for their imaging products and it has three dedicated fabs in Japan. In 2016, Canon, the fifth-largest image sensor manufacturer in the world, decided to start selling the sensors to other companies.[41] However, it does not plan to sell smartphone image sensors to focus on the niche markets such as industrial and space observation.

 

Although Canon had withdrawn from the so-called 'pixel count race' in the 2000s, it has been on the cutting edge as to the image sensor resolution in recent years. A demo of a 250MP image sensor was revealed in 2015[42] and reported to be launched in 2020. In 2018, Canon launched a 120MP image sensor as a part of its latest BtoB offerings.[43]

 

Printers

 

For many years, Canon was the principal maker of the print engines found in industry-standard laser printers. The first models of Apple LaserWriter and the equivalent products made by HP used the Canon LBP-CX engine. The next models (LaserWriter II series, LaserJet II series) used the Canon LBP-SX engine. Later models used the Canon LBP-LX, LBP-EX, LBP-PX engines and many other Canon print engines.

 

Following Canon's acquisition of the Dutch digital printing manufacturer Océ in 2010, Canon continued to develop and manufacture printing systems, initially under the Océ brand name. On 1.1.2020 the company Océ was officially renamed Canon Production Printing.[44]

 

A Canon wide-format printer

 

Canon's largest division in terms of revenue is its multifunction copier division. Canon distributes its consumer and home office imageCLASS line though retail outlets and professional-grade imageRUNNER series through subsidiary Canon Solutions America and independent distributors. The professional-grade series ranges from small table tops to large digital presses.

 

( Scanners )

 

Canon manufactures a wide range of flatbed scanners, film scanners and document scanners for home and business use, including the Canon Canoscan 8800F. Some of its scanners employs LED inDirect Exposure (LiDE) technology, such that USB port is sufficient to power the scanner, and no additional power is required.

Calculators

Canon produced a range of calculators in various applications, including handheld calculators, desktop calculators, printing calculators and scientific calculators. One model was the 1964 Canola 130. It had 13 digits, a result of marketing research. The reason for the odd number of figures was based on selling it to the Japanese central bank. Given the low value of the Japanese Yen, 13 digits was a requirement of the banks.

 

The calculator was built by germanium transistors and the display was a light pipe which gave an odd format.[45]

 

( Projectors )

 

Canon produces a range of projectors.[46]

 

( Presenters )

 

Canon offers a range of wireless presenters, from advanced green laser presenters with back-lit screen display to basic red laser presentation clickers.

 

( Virtual reality headset )

 

Canon is developing a prototype virtual reality headset (Canon VR). The headset offers a wider viewing angle (120°) than other VR devices but requires handles rather than a head strap. The headset is not yet available on the market.[47] As of 2020, Canon produces and sells high-end AR (augmented reality) headsets for enterprise users.[48]

 

( Manufacturing equipment )

 

Canon is one of the world's top producers of semiconductor and display manufacturing equipment. Its subsidiary Canon Tokki dominates the market of material deposition equipment, instruments for manufacturing OLED displays. Canon is also the leading manufacturer of display photolithography equipment and one of the top 3 in the semiconductor lithography machine market. Once a leader of semiconductor lithography along with Nikon, it has been dwarfed by ASML and as of 2017 its share in the overall market was less than 5%. Still, Canon maintains a great presence in the i-line stepper market.

 

 

 

CANON / CAMERA SYSTEMATIC AMENITIES & DEVELOPMENT  / CORPORATE JAPAN RESOURCE / CANON TOKYO ( A.P. P )

 

 

HTTP://www.andreaspennophotography.de / Portrayal of Cameras from CANON / Japan / Protokoll 22.09.2022

 

Corporation with Hugh History of World / Canon Great Source for Media Press Release ( Media ) Design Protokollierungen / Media Representation / Asia Continent Origin.

Take A Look / Convince Yourself.....Great Technology from Japan / Tokyo / World Popular Trademark & Corporation

So Canon Inc is popular for it's digital device.It's compact & cooperative for long time in History of Media Telecommunication.

Canon has also CT-Technology & different to offer if you look upside this Protokollierung. The Camera Systematics displayed in the Video are versatile and does own future.

The Canon Imaging Eco System is fulfilled with representation & futuristic media technology involved. All Models are professional.Asia the Continent has a lot of Digital Technology to offer also from Taiwan & China.

So this sector is about Economically Intelligent Future & Medicine. The Introduction on the Video is all about Flexibility and Human Intelligence and Smart Media Development.

 

 

CANON INC / CAMERA TECHNOLOGY FROM TOKYO / JAPAN / ASIA / WORLD / 

 

HTTP://www.andreaspennophotography.jimdo.com ( A.P. P )

 

RESOURCE CLIP / CANON

 

 

So Canon is very professional. Also this black individual explaining this Canon Model & Different Cameras is such a genius & professional.

Canon has different sectors to offer. Also in the scale Medicine & Media Technology. CANON Inc, does come from Japan / Tokyo / Asia.

Camera Devices is filled with Telecommunication which is astonishment & representation of a accomplished establishment.

Development / Economically Intelligent Future is presently on this site & Zession ( Only Definition of a Sector ) just Sector. You can use Canon Cameras in all Type of Human Experience.

If in leisure or family traditional occasions. Film & Movie Settings. Also School Events for the youth. Cameras can be used in Holidays where ever in the world.

If in the Caribbean or the Alps. In Australia to take photos from Kangaroos or in New York Manhattan in the Metropolitan Inner Scale City.

CANON INC. japanese cameras are suited for university commencements & graduation celebrity & partys.

Imprint  / Impressum /

 

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