World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System (A.P. P) +Second Creative Big Project from andreaspennophotography.de
Federal Republic of Germany, DE , UTC+2 Western Civilization, about ( ISS ) NASA North America , 20.08.2022
So this is the second big Project from andreaspennophotography with futurisic projection. It's called
( World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System ( A.P.P) or World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P Source . This Project will end 2023 A.D. It's all about the NASA & SpaceX or Indian Space Science or the russian Roscosmos from Moscow. So the ( National Aeronautics & Space Administration ) is delving for decades in the universe. They have their Headquarters in Washington D.C North America. Nowadays Technology & Systematically Equipment on the ISS is high intellectual & intelligent in purpose of. 15 Countries does belong to the ISS inside the Space Station in the cosmos . The USA is hugh developed in creating a operational system for the ( ISS Human Beings ) above our earth. So we have also differentiated gravity in the space above which is belonging to the astronauts in space. The ISS is demonstrating how intelligent human civilization is in the cosmos in a station. So Human Achievement & Human Operating Systematically Infrastructure on earth is in Space welcomed.Crews & Expeditions, Launches & Landings are programmed & diverse operating in world tolerance & mondial attention.The USA wants also to land in this century the 21st century on the Planet Mars. Which will be very in accordance to technologically human resources maybe possibile but most very complicated from the ground of Mars to enter and writing as the americans history just being world revolutionary by the Mars Turn. So also the ISS different active nowadays astronauts have food packages in the universe in the station above. So also Communications Works & Astronauts Structured Development in the ISS is operating in a intelligent & smart way. So the continent North America has different rockets in offering, A hugh space rocket just big immense volume & circulating length & width. Or different smaller one's. Directly to portray the United States of America is them most developed & organized especially connected to Space Activity in the world history next to the Russia . The U.S has sourcing like the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The US does also mapping Earth's Dust. Joe Biden Mr. President of the richest country of the globe should be proud of every ( USA ) ISS Astronaut by great american human beings with great honorable attitudes in the universe. So the Government is promulgating a lot of resources to the ( NASA ). Just even after two decades the ( ISS ) and the International Space Station and it's circulating scientifically galactic system is evolving & developing in hugh robotics and human resources of world. Now 2022 Cooperation & Partnership and Unity was incorporated with Frank De Winne of the (European Space Agency ) Intercontinental or Sergei Krikalev from sourcing of Roscosmos for american & russian Alliance. But Roscosmos & and Russia wants under different circumstances leave the ISS and different Aerospace Promulgating Influx in the World. So the Payload Mission Operations Division is responsible for the management of the space station science operations which is all about Coordination & Professional Works. So the astronauts in space is sometimes outside the ISS Volume and does sometimes install some Hardware- Constructive Pre-Infrastructure Systematic Medium in the galaxy. The Mars is a very difficult opportunity & possbility to be in research of a successfully landing and find civilization on this foreign human earth terrain. So Elon Musk a very famous name in American Space Exploration and SpaceX as well as ( NASA ) has Ambitions & Elucidated Purpose of Visions how do create a city on the Mars Planet. We have also Planets like Venus or Jupiter,Saturn, Neptune,Pluto,Mercur and this our Solar System just Solar System.So we have different Research Centers in humankind for Aeronautically Systematically Space Delving. So the( ISS ) is since decades under great Values & Under Great Aspirations established in North America. So in former Eastern Germany people was calling astronaut just cosmonauts. The ISS ( International Space Station )is hugh presently in this time of humankind technology greatly established & initiated. I believe enormously strides will come to galatic human scientifically space & exploration and delving. Roscosmos anyway is also very cooperative with their basic skills & professional operating goodwill to create a russian voice in this happen to accomplish even more success with NASA and Roscosmos just a great sourcing for scientific research in world. This will be maybe 2024 in the ISS History cause differernt Conditions lead to the absolutely ending of russian presence in the space exploration just in the ISS . So North America is flexible in development and futuristic exploration in the cosmos. So Space Exploration & Delving in America is developed & structured. The ISS, SpaceX and NASA have great cooperation.
Federal Republic of Germany, DE , UTC +2 Western Civilization, About ( ISS ) NASA North America ,USA World 20.08.2022
( World ( ISS Systematic ) Influx Intergalactic Spacecraft Model ) Second Big Project from A.P.P
So now in the 21st Century gates are open for the Space Delving & Exploring Indices & Possibilities for Aeronautically Research in the Galaxy. In March 2022 this year the APOLLO 9 launched it's first test flight on lunar expeditions. Cosmic Targets from Webb Telescopically System( Canadian & European Space Agencies ) are operating united and will coming forward with first spectacular images & galactically records from universe from WEBB Telescopically Research & Development.Elon Musk was also creating & accelerating and leading control SpaceX in the first time of beginning of the century. So i know in world humankind history since the Russian Cosmonaut & Astronaut Juri Alexejewitsch Gagarin was first time in the galaxy & cosmos and giving the pride & honor to the Russian Federation as a revolutionary systematically human being, i know the revolution to the Planet ( Mars )can also get reaching in possibilities & opportunities jus chances for the world space discovery especially the USA ( United States of America ) India & Roscosmos ( Russian Federation )to accomplish this human utopically change in human history to land on a planetary systematically landing on the Mars in Transplanetary delving would be for the mondial science a great deal. Even different countries is exploring in the ( ISS )working united in the galaxy & cosmos with overalls just they have also food packages for nourishment. The Gravíty is differentiated than on the planet earth.
Also the Kingdom Saudi Arabia has it's own Space Discovery & Protokollierungen and Delving Affiliation with the universe from ( Riyadh). Worldwide we as human beings is delving in space over 60 years in human era timeline.
So the USA is very hugh advanced & professional in the ISS Delving Space Station. This year 2022 12.September the ( NASA ) from US is celebrating John F. Kennedy's Speech " from 1962 We choose to go to the Moon " from Rice University Houston,Texas. So also Mohammed Bin Salman is in development of Space Delving & Exploration in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA ). Also France is in this subject object very advanced & developed and hugh established also the Archipelago Japan from ( Asia ).Also Canadian Research in Space is great to admire. So the humankind is growing in Space Infrastructure & ISS and Technology since the 20th century. The Mars Expedition is a enormously hugh handling from the USA and their concerned People creating Technologies & Creation of Modern Systematically Physics to land on this Planet in a another dimension of a space from a planet from other civilization. So on the 29. July 1958, in USA the NASA was built and founded.Especially also the ( Hubble Telescopically Appliance ) was established & founded 24.April 1990,12:33 UTC and sent into th galaxy.Hubble as a Telescope which can record & capture beautifully imagery from above just pigments if a intergalactic Protocolation of stars & flickering starlight or imagery of dimensions which is looking utopian.So the ISS the Astronauts is accustomed to different daily measurements which is different than on earth. There is also Oxygen Volume Cases & Tanks on ISS in Vessels ( Oxygen Systematic Volumes ). So Joe Biden can be proud of Elon Musk. Even Musk what he reached in lifetime, very enormously success which is astonishment right. Elon Musk also was an affiliation of creating PAYPAL (Online Pay System). Or Joe Biden and Kamala Harris from Indian Roots which is the Vice Presidency from the United States of America can be very proud of the US Enthusiasm of the American Astronauts in the Cosmos of the ISS. So also the Astronauts does pre-prepare & get in to a phase of training mentally & physically before the ISS Activity Commitment. So SpaceX has different Volume and Strength and Space of Rockets in the Halls where they are built & and in next turn engaged in get in to Takeoff. So the Indian Aeronautics Science & Native Delving & Exploring Organization is the Indian Space Research Organization ( ISRO ) from India Asia. Also Indian Astronauts with Overall are equipped & established in the ISS from World. As well as will be there 15 further alternative names of the World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Universe System A.P. P. But more short & small summarized & elucidated.First is or World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P Source, Second World ( ISS ) Creational Development Spacecraft System ( A.P. P ). And to be continued 13 for complete exploring project next gonna folllow in the Second Big Project from andreaspennophotography.de as soon as possible.
Rewritten ( 27.08.2022 )
Western Civilization, Second Big Project from Diverse Industry, A.P.P, About Aeropsace in World / Protokoll 15.08.2022 AD
Well, this time Aerospace & ( ISS ) are attractive in humankind. Elon Musk is especially the most flexible & knowledge carrying human being alive from the United States of America with a lot of attributes & professional works already created in human scientifically & progressive development of rockets & a first orbital class rocket capable of REFLIGHT in Cosmos History.So SpaceX is in galaxy & what is above us of earth very developed, up to date and established. Also 15 Countries are in the ISS available & comfortable and confident till this moment at their second home. So also the FALCON has 174 Launches & 134 Landings in the news of SpaceX. So Elon Musk is also worldwide busy by his automobile car-manufacturer Trading Mark Tesla also in Berlin/ DE & China, eventually next decades als in different Countries in prevalence for world circulating business for Musk. So SpaceX Falcon 9 is reusable.The Falcon is suitable & appropriated for transportation from humans & products of world.The FALCON 9 is 2296 Feet in Height.It's very constructive to build. So the United States of America is very busy by aerospace & space exploration since long time. So also nowadays NASA has a history of MARS Exploration & Research of Transplanetary Scale since 25 Years of human era timeline.So also to make the point clear why the project name WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P.P). This term intergalactic is maybe unrealistically, but was chosen only for the great name of how it sounds now for further articulation & usage. So the NASA is nowadays in research of different in space.Also the Chandra Telescope System consists of 4 pairs of mirrors and their support infrastructure. .So the indian space orgnanization from their native country is named ( ISRO ) from India.They had also last time their ( Moon) Research Development Initiative. Also Canada is in the ISS available.Also SpaceX designs & manufactures rockets & space operating systematically equipment & industry. Also Saudi Arabia the Kingdom is since the Vision 2030 very engaged in different supplementary diverse industries in world. Also involved 2 Billion Dollar Investment for Space Program is established for the Vision 2030 of Arabia. So Joe Biden has a great compliment for the NASA & Boeing and SpaceX. Every President since 1776 AD ( Independence of Country ) of the United States of America would be proud of Elon Musk & ( NASA ) . Also progress & advancement in world of aerospace is accomplished & done. So maybe next centuries maybe eventually the humankind will live on the ( Mars ) or other delved transplanetary systems of space. Nowadays it's impossible to think like that , but our human resource civilization nowadays doesn't know this at this particular time .So also Norway & Switzerland are in the ISS affiliated. The World is exploring in space just with diligence & valor. So once in world Neil Amstrong landed on the Moon. So now in the 21st century SpaceX will develop different on the infrastructure & technologically sites also the Russian Federation ( Roscosmos ) which will also leave the ISS next years is hugh arranged in professional space exploration of world. So also different aspects to tell the space exploration is also a Space Race. So eventually gravity is important in the space to deal with. In ISS Members have also food packages sent from human earth above. So also Establishment from SpaceX is very modern & intellectual in competition of other galaxy space corporations & space industries. The ISS is hundreds of kilometers away from earth just the plateau & ground. Also the ( Middle East ) has beautifully & promulgating and promising geographically sites. Also United Arab Emirates ( Vereinigte Arabische Emirate ) ( UAE ) & Qatar are very greatly to observe from Satellite Capturings & Recordings. So the Middle East is hugh enormously to tolerate of Satellite Records from above which are also worldwide known. So also Satellites are crystalized for Capturings from above just the geoecologcally & geography of world. So the ( ISS ) Creational Development Spacecraft System ( A.P. P ) known as a secondary name is under development & structure for the next time scale. World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P is also a secondary name & definition of the Project name WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P.P). Next Name is World ( ISS ) Intelligent & Space Civilization Operation ( A.P.P ). Now 3 articulated Names are known, confident & established for this project of my corporation in world. Now 12 expressive & articulated definitions are freely left for this challenge & project. So i guess to say next alternative name is World ( Corporate ) Space Center Initiative Milky Way Snack ( A.P.P ) and 5 from 15 just the fifth of fifteen, in cause it''s called in world from my corporation & industry just the Second Hugh Project of Blog. It's called World ( ISS ) Research Operating Galaxy Quest ( A.P.P ) . So the next paragraph is about just the phrase in talks around of establishment of the commodity of all the equipment & corporate usage of development of this industry. Also SpaceX has rockets which are built of solid & fundamentally systematic commodity. It's very expensive to finance SpaceX or Roscosmos spare parts,industrial segments, propulsion development, crude rocket propellant is the reaction mass of a rocket. This reaction mass is ejected at the highest achievable velocity from a rocket engine to produce thrust. The energy required can either come from the propellants themselves, as with a chemical rocket, or from an external source, as with ion engines, especially the metal & solid steel circulating steelh of framing of the rocket, the design of a rocket for prestige accurately drawers to design & get under opportunities a pattern &sketches a complete design of a human civilized space rocket alike. USA does possess infrastructure of a different Hubble Telescope in cosmos & galaxy. So the ( ISS ) is to admire what human beings created in world across the timeline of the 20th century & 21st century. So also ( ISS) is also difficult to manage for the residents of this space shuttle. Different Health Circumstances are in the constellation to look at.Worldwide also people is interested in Telescopically Systematic Usage. By looking at nights into the sky & stars above with family. Also the Civilization from NASA is precious & you get updated information from them on their personal internet address also Japanese & Indian Resources are in the web, especially also Chinese Productivity & Development in Space Race is welcomed. Also China has now since 2022 AD it's own Space Developed Station in Cosmos.So China is now in own galaxy observance & also to explore everything above,also with Satellite Circulating Establishment above.
This Journalism & Protocol was written & established from Andreas Penno.
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WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P.P) /
World ( Corporate ) Space Center Initiative Milky Way Snack ( A.P. P )
World ( ISS ) Research Operating Galaxy Quest ( A.P.P )
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Protokoll / DE / Federal Republic of Germany / EU / Protokollierung / About The ( ISS ) in Space / Development & History of ISS ( Source Wikipedia ) A.P. P 29.09.2022 AD
The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.
The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, a 1984 American proposal to construct a permanently crewed Earth-orbiting station, and the contemporaneous Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal from 1976 with similar aims. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations and the American Skylab. It is the largest artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda Service Module or visiting spacecraft. The ISS circles the Earth in roughly 93 minutes, completing 15.5 orbits per day.
The station is divided into two sections: the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is operated by Russia, while the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) is run by the United States as well as by the other states. The Russian segment includes six modules. The US segment includes ten modules, whose support services are distributed 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA.
Roscosmos had previously endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024, having proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. However, continued cooperation has been rendered uncertain by the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and subsequent international sanctions on Russia, who theoretically, may lower, redirect, or cut funding from their side of the space station due to the sanctions set on them.
The first ISS component was launched in 1998, and the first long-term residents arrived on 2 November 2000 after being launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on 31 October 2000. The station has since been continuously occupied for 21 years and 331 days, the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by the Mir space station. The latest major pressurised module, Nauka, was fitted in 2021, a little over ten years after the previous major addition, Leonardo in 2011. Development and assembly of the station continues, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016, and several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch starting in 2021. In January 2022, the station's operation authorization was extended to 2030, with funding secured within the United States through that year. There have been calls to privatize ISS operations after that point to pursue future Moon and Mars missions, with former NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine stating: "given our current budget constraints, if we want to go to the moon and we want to go to Mars, we need to commercialize low Earth orbit and go on to the next step."
The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, photovoltaic solar arrays, thermal radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles. The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the SpaceX Dragon 2, and the Northrop Grumman Space Systems Cygnus, and formerly the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and SpaceX Dragon 1. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. As of April 2022, 251 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 20 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times.
( History )
This section is an excerpt from International Space Station programme § History and conception.
In the early 1980s, NASA planned to launch a modular space station called Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. In 1984 the ESA was invited to participate in Space Station Freedom, and the ESA approved the Columbus laboratory by 1987. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), or Kibō, was announced in 1985, as part of the Freedom space station in response to a NASA request in 1982.
In early 1985, science ministers from the European Space Agency (ESA) countries approved the Columbus programme, the most ambitious effort in space undertaken by that organisation at the time. The plan spearheaded by Germany and Italy included a module which would be attached to Freedom, and with the capability to evolve into a full-fledged European orbital outpost before the end of the century. The space station was also going to tie the emerging European and Japanese national space programmes closer to the US-led project, thereby preventing those nations from becoming major, independent competitors too.
In September 1993, American Vice-President Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin announced plans for a new space station, which eventually became the International Space Station. They also agreed, in preparation for this new project, that the United States would be involved in the Mir programme, including American Shuttles docking, in the Shuttle–Mir programme.
On 12 April 2021, at a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, then-Deputy Prime Minister Yury Borisov announced he had decided that Russia might withdraw from the ISS programme in 2025. According to Russian authorities, the timeframe of the station’s operations has expired and its condition leaves much to be desired. On 26 July 2022, Borisov, who had become head of Roscosmos, submitted to Putin his plans for withdrawal from the programme after 2024. However, Robyn Gatens, the NASA official in charge of space station operations, responded that NASA had not received any formal notices from Roscosmos concerning withdrawal plans.
The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, with power, data, cooling, and crew available to support experiments. Small uncrewed spacecraft can also provide platforms for experiments, especially those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed potentially for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers.
The ISS simplifies individual experiments by allowing groups of experiments to share the same launches and crew time. Research is conducted in a wide variety of fields, including astrobiology, astronomy, physical sciences, materials science, space weather, meteorology, and human research including space medicine and the life sciences. Scientists on Earth have timely access to the data and can suggest experimental modifications to the crew. If follow-on experiments are necessary, the routinely scheduled launches of resupply craft allows new hardware to be launched with relative ease. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing approximately 160 person-hours per week of labour with a crew of six. However, a considerable amount of crew time is taken up by station maintenance.
Perhaps the most notable ISS experiment is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is intended to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe. According to NASA, the AMS is as important as the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently docked on station, it could not have been easily accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power and bandwidth needs. On 3 April 2013, scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the AMS. According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays".
The space environment is hostile to life. Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting primarily of protons and other subatomic charged particles from the solar wind, in addition to cosmic rays), high vacuum, extreme temperatures, and microgravity. Some simple forms of life called extremophiles, as well as small invertebrates called tardigrades can survive in this environment in an extremely dry state through desiccation.
Medical research improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. These data will be used to determine whether high duration human spaceflight and space colonisation are feasible. In 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggested that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary cruise, such as the six-month interval required to travel to Mars.
Medical studies are conducted aboard the ISS on behalf of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). Prominent among these is the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity study in which astronauts perform ultrasound scans under the guidance of remote experts. The study considers the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in space. Usually, there is no physician on board the ISS and diagnosis of medical conditions is a challenge. It is anticipated that remotely guided ultrasound scans will have application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations where access to a trained physician is difficult.
In August 2020, scientists reported that bacteria from Earth, particularly Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria, which is highly resistant to environmental hazards, were found to survive for three years in outer space, based on studies conducted on the International Space Station. These findings supported the notion of panspermia, the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed in various ways, including space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids or contaminated spacecraft.
Remote sensing of the Earth, astronomy, and deep space research on the ISS have dramatically increased during the 2010s after the completion of the US Orbital Segment in 2011. Throughout the more than 20 years of the ISS program researchers aboard the ISS and on the ground have examined aerosols, ozone, lightning, and oxides in Earth's atmosphere, as well as the Sun, cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter, and dark matter in the universe. Examples of Earth-viewing remote sensing experiments that have flown on the ISS are the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, ISS-RapidScat, ECOSTRESS, the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation, and the Cloud Aerosol Transport System. ISS-based astronomy telescopes and experiments include SOLAR, the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer, the Calorimetric Electron Telescope, the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer.
Gravity at the altitude of the ISS is approximately 90% as strong as at Earth's surface, but objects in orbit are in a continuous state of freefall, resulting in an apparent state of weightlessness. This perceived weightlessness is disturbed by five effects: Drag from the residual atmosphere. Vibration from the movements of mechanical systems and the crew. Actuation of the on-board attitude control moment gyroscopes. Thruster firings for attitude or orbital changes.
Gravity-gradient effects, also known as tidal effects. Items at different locations within the ISS would, if not attached to the station, follow slightly different orbits. Being mechanically connected these items experience small forces that keep the station moving as a rigid body.Researchers are investigating the effect of the station's near-weightless environment on the evolution, development, growth and internal processes of plants and animals. In response to some of the data, NASA wants to investigate microgravity's effects on the growth of three-dimensional, human-like tissues and the unusual protein crystals that can be formed in space.
Investigating the physics of fluids in microgravity will provide better models of the behaviour of fluids. Because fluids can be almost completely combined in microgravity, physicists investigate fluids that do not mix well on Earth. Examining reactions that are slowed by low gravity and low temperatures will improve our understanding of superconductivity.The study of materials science is an important ISS research activity, with the objective of reaping economic benefits through the improvement of techniques used on the ground. Other areas of interest include the effect of low gravity on combustion, through the study of the efficiency of burning and control of emissions and pollutants. These findings may improve knowledge about energy production and lead to economic and environmental benefits.
( Exploration )
The ISS provides a location in the relative safety of low Earth orbit to test spacecraft systems that will be required for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. This provides experience in operations, maintenance as well as repair and replacement activities on-orbit. This will help develop essential skills in operating spacecraft farther from Earth, reduce mission risks, and advance the capabilities of interplanetary spacecraft. Referring to the MARS-500 experiment, a crew isolation experiment conducted on Earth, ESA states that "Whereas the ISS is essential for answering questions concerning the possible impact of weightlessness, radiation and other space-specific factors, aspects such as the effect of long-term isolation and confinement can be more appropriately addressed via ground-based simulations". Sergey Krasnov, the head of human space flight programmes for Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, in 2011 suggested a "shorter version" of MARS-500 may be carried out on the ISS.
In 2009, noting the value of the partnership framework itself, Sergey Krasnov wrote, "When compared with partners acting separately, partners developing complementary abilities and resources could give us much more assurance of the success and safety of space exploration. The ISS is helping further advance near-Earth space exploration and realisation of prospective programmes of research and exploration of the Solar system, including the Moon and Mars." A crewed mission to Mars may be a multinational effort involving space agencies and countries outside the current ISS partnership. In 2010, ESA Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain stated his agency was ready to propose to the other four partners that China, India and South Korea be invited to join the ISS partnership. NASA chief Charles Bolden stated in February 2011, "Any mission to Mars is likely to be a global effort". Currently, US federal legislation prevents NASA co-operation with China on space projects.
( Education and Cultural Outreach )
The ISS crew provides opportunities for students on Earth by running student-developed experiments, making educational demonstrations, allowing for student participation in classroom versions of ISS experiments, and directly engaging students using radio, and email. ESA offers a wide range of free teaching materials that can be downloaded for use in classrooms. In one lesson, students can navigate a 3D model of the interior and exterior of the ISS, and face spontaneous challenges to solve in real time.
The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) aims to inspire children to "pursue craftsmanship" and to heighten their "awareness of the importance of life and their responsibilities in society". Through a series of education guides, students develop a deeper understanding of the past and near-term future of crewed space flight, as well as that of Earth and life. In the JAXA "Seeds in Space" experiments, the mutation effects of spaceflight on plant seeds aboard the ISS are explored by growing sunflower seeds that have flown on the ISS for about nine months. In the first phase of Kibō utilisation from 2008 to mid-2010, researchers from more than a dozen Japanese universities conducted experiments in diverse fields.
Cultural activities are another major objective of the ISS programme. Tetsuo Tanaka, the director of JAXA's Space Environment and Utilization Center, has said: "There is something about space that touches even people who are not interested in science."
Amateur Radio on the ISS (ARISS) is a volunteer programme that encourages students worldwide to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, through amateur radio communications opportunities with the ISS crew. ARISS is an international working group, consisting of delegations from nine countries including several in Europe, as well as Japan, Russia, Canada, and the United States. In areas where radio equipment cannot be used, speakerphones connect students to ground stations which then connect the calls to the space station.
First Orbit is a 2011 feature-length documentary film about Vostok 1, the first crewed space flight around the Earth. By matching the orbit of the ISS to that of Vostok 1 as closely as possible, in terms of ground path and time of day, documentary filmmaker Christopher Riley and ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli were able to film the view that Yuri Gagarin saw on his pioneering orbital space flight. This new footage was cut together with the original Vostok 1 mission audio recordings sourced from the Russian State Archive. Nespoli is credited as the director of photography for this documentary film, as he recorded the majority of the footage himself during Expedition 26/27. The film was streamed in a global YouTube premiere in 2011 under a free licence through the website firstorbit.org.
In May 2013, commander Chris Hadfield shot a music video of David Bowie's "Space Oddity" on board the station, which was released on YouTube. It was the first music video ever to be filmed in space.
In November 2017, while participating in Expedition 52/53 on the ISS, Paolo Nespoli made two recordings of his spoken voice (one in English and the other in his native Italian), for use on Wikipedia articles. These were the first content made in space specifically for Wikipedia.
In November 2021, a virtual reality exhibit called The Infinite featuring life aboard the ISS was announced.
Since the International Space Station is a multi-national collaborative project, the components for in-orbit assembly were manufactured in various countries around the world. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the U.S. components Destiny, Unity, the Integrated Truss Structure, and the solar arrays were fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Michoud Assembly Facility. These modules were delivered to the Operations and Checkout Building and the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) for final assembly and processing for launch.
The Russian modules, including Zarya and Zvezda, were manufactured at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center in Moscow. Zvezda was initially manufactured in 1985 as a component for Mir-2, but was never launched and instead became the ISS Service Module.
The European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module was manufactured at the EADS Astrium Space Transportation facilities in Bremen, Germany, along with many other contractors throughout Europe. The other ESA-built modules – Harmony, Tranquility, the Leonardo MPLM, and the Cupola – were initially manufactured at the Thales Alenia Space factory in Turin, Italy. The structural steel hulls of the modules were transported by aircraft to the Kennedy Space Center SSPF for launch processing.
The Japanese Experiment Module Kibō, was fabricated in various technology manufacturing facilities in Japan, at the NASDA (now JAXA) Tsukuba Space Center, and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. The Kibo module was transported by ship and flown by aircraft to the SSPF.
The Mobile Servicing System, consisting of the Canadarm2 and the Dextre grapple fixture, was manufactured at various factories in Canada (such as the David Florida Laboratory) and the United States, under contract by the Canadian Space Agency. The mobile base system, a connecting framework for Canadarm2 mounted on rails, was built by Northrop Grumman.
( Assembly )
The ISS was slowly assembled over more than a decade of spaceflights and crews.
An iconic view of the completed station as seen from Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132, 23 May 2010
Main articles: Assembly of the International Space Station and List of ISS spacewalks
The assembly of the International Space Station, a major endeavour in space architecture, began in November 1998. Russian modules launched and docked robotically, with the exception of Rassvet. All other modules were delivered by the Space Shuttle, which required installation by ISS and Shuttle crewmembers using the Canadarm2 (SSRMS) and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs); by 5 June 2011, they had added 159 components during more than 1,000 hours of EVA. 127 of these spacewalks originated from the station, and the remaining 32 were launched from the airlocks of docked Space Shuttles. The beta angle of the station had to be considered at all times during construction.
The first module of the ISS, Zarya, was launched on 20 November 1998 on an autonomous Russian Proton rocket. It provided propulsion, attitude control, communications, and electrical power, but lacked long-term life support functions. A passive NASA module, Unity, was launched two weeks later aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-88 and attached to Zarya by astronauts during EVAs. The Unity module has two Pressurised Mating Adapters (PMAs): one connects permanently to Zarya and the other allowed the Space Shuttle to dock to the space station. At that time, the Russian (Soviet) station Mir was still inhabited, and the ISS remained uncrewed for two years. On 12 July 2000, the Zvezda module was launched into orbit. Onboard preprogrammed commands deployed its solar arrays and communications antenna. Zvezda then became the passive target for a rendezvous with Zarya and Unity, maintaining a station-keeping orbit while the Zarya–Unity vehicle performed the rendezvous and docking via ground control and the Russian automated rendezvous and docking system. Zarya's computer transferred control of the station to Zvezda's computer soon after docking. Zvezda added sleeping quarters, a toilet, kitchen, CO2 scrubbers, dehumidifier, oxygen generators, and exercise equipment, plus data, voice and television communications with mission control, enabling permanent habitation of the station.
The first resident crew, Expedition 1, arrived in November 2000 on Soyuz TM-31. At the end of the first day on the station, astronaut Bill Shepherd requested the use of the radio call sign "Alpha", which he and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev preferred to the more cumbersome "International Space Station". The name "Alpha" had previously been used for the station in the early 1990s, and its use was authorised for the whole of Expedition 1. Shepherd had been advocating the use of a new name to project managers for some time. Referencing a naval tradition in a pre-launch news conference he had said: "For thousands of years, humans have been going to sea in ships. People have designed and built these vessels, launched them with a good feeling that a name will bring good fortune to the crew and success to their voyage." Yuri Semenov, the President of Russian Space Corporation Energia at the time, disapproved of the name "Alpha" as he felt that Mir was the first modular space station, so the names "Beta" or "Mir 2" for the ISS would have been more fitting. Expedition 1 arrived midway between the Space Shuttle flights of missions STS-92 and STS-97. These two flights each added segments of the station's Integrated Truss Structure, which provided the station with Ku-band communication for US television, additional attitude support needed for the additional mass of the USOS, and substantial solar arrays to supplement the station's four existing arrays. Over the next two years, the station continued to expand. A Soyuz-U rocket delivered the Pirs docking compartment. The Space Shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour delivered the Destiny laboratory and Quest airlock, in addition to the station's main robot arm, the Canadarm2, and several more segments of the Integrated Truss Structure. The expansion schedule was interrupted in 2003 by the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster and a resulting hiatus in flights. The Space Shuttle was grounded until 2005 with STS-114 flown by Discovery. Assembly resumed in 2006 with the arrival of STS-115 with Atlantis, which delivered the station's second set of solar arrays. Several more truss segments and a third set of arrays were delivered on STS-116, STS-117, and STS-118. As a result of the major expansion of the station's power-generating capabilities, more pressurised modules could be accommodated, and the Harmony node and Columbus European laboratory were added. These were soon followed by the first two components of Kibō. In March 2009, STS-119 completed the Integrated Truss Structure with the installation of the fourth and final set of solar arrays. The final section of Kibō was delivered in July 2009 on STS-127, followed by the Russian Poisk module. The third node, Tranquility, was delivered in February 2010 during STS-130 by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, alongside the Cupola, followed by the penultimate Russian module, Rassvet, in May 2010. Rassvet was delivered by Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-132 in exchange for the Russian Proton delivery of the US-funded Zarya module in 1998. The last pressurised module of the USOS, Leonardo, was brought to the station in February 2011 on the final flight of Discovery, STS-133. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was delivered by Endeavour on STS-134 the same year. By June 2011, the station consisted of 15 pressurised modules and the Integrated Truss Structure. Two power modules called NEM-1 and NEM-2. are still to be launched. Russia's new primary research module Nauka docked in July 2021, along with the European Robotic Arm which will be able to relocate itself to different parts of the Russian modules of the station. Russia's latest addition, the nodal module Prichal docked in November 2021. The gross mass of the station changes over time. The total launch mass of the modules on orbit is about 417,289 kg (919,965 lb) (as of 3 September 2011). The mass of experiments, spare parts, personal effects, crew, foodstuff, clothing, propellants, water supplies, gas supplies, docked spacecraft, and other items add to the total mass of the station. Hydrogen gas is constantly vented overboard by the oxygen generators.