World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System (A.P. P) +Second Creative Big Project from andreaspennophotography.de
Federal Republic of Germany, DE , UTC+2 Western Civilization, about ( ISS ) NASA North America , 20.08.2022
So this is the second big Project from andreaspennophotography with futurisic projection. It's called
( World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System ( A.P.P) or World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P Source . This Project will end 2023 A.D. It's all about the NASA & SpaceX or Indian Space Science or the russian Roscosmos from Moscow. So the ( National Aeronautics & Space Administration ) is delving for decades in the universe. They have their Headquarters in Washington D.C North America. Nowadays Technology & Systematically Equipment on the ISS is high intellectual & intelligent in purpose of. 15 Countries does belong to the ISS inside the Space Station in the cosmos . The USA is hugh developed in creating a operational system for the ( ISS Human Beings ) above our earth. So we have also differentiated gravity in the space above which is belonging to the astronauts in space. The ISS is demonstrating how intelligent human civilization is in the cosmos in a station. So Human Achievement & Human Operating Systematically Infrastructure on earth is in Space welcomed.Crews & Expeditions, Launches & Landings are programmed & diverse operating in world tolerance & mondial attention.The USA wants also to land in this century the 21st century on the Planet Mars. Which will be very in accordance to technologically human resources maybe possibile but most very complicated from the ground of Mars to enter and writing as the americans history just being world revolutionary by the Mars Turn. So also the ISS different active nowadays astronauts have food packages in the universe in the station above. So also Communications Works & Astronauts Structured Development in the ISS is operating in a intelligent & smart way. So the continent North America has different rockets in offering, A hugh space rocket just big immense volume & circulating length & width. Or different smaller one's. Directly to portray the United States of America is them most developed & organized especially connected to Space Activity in the world history next to the Russia . The U.S has sourcing like the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The US does also mapping Earth's Dust. Joe Biden Mr. President of the richest country of the globe should be proud of every ( USA ) ISS Astronaut by great american human beings with great honorable attitudes in the universe. So the Government is promulgating a lot of resources to the ( NASA ). Just even after two decades the ( ISS ) and the International Space Station and it's circulating scientifically galactic system is evolving & developing in hugh robotics and human resources of world. Now 2022 Cooperation & Partnership and Unity was incorporated with Frank De Winne of the (European Space Agency ) Intercontinental or Sergei Krikalev from sourcing of Roscosmos for american & russian Alliance. But Roscosmos & and Russia wants under different circumstances leave the ISS and different Aerospace Promulgating Influx in the World. So the Payload Mission Operations Division is responsible for the management of the space station science operations which is all about Coordination & Professional Works. So the astronauts in space is sometimes outside the ISS Volume and does sometimes install some Hardware- Constructive Pre-Infrastructure Systematic Medium in the galaxy. The Mars is a very difficult opportunity & possbility to be in research of a successfully landing and find civilization on this foreign human earth terrain. So Elon Musk a very famous name in American Space Exploration and SpaceX as well as ( NASA ) has Ambitions & Elucidated Purpose of Visions how do create a city on the Mars Planet. We have also Planets like Venus or Jupiter,Saturn, Neptune,Pluto,Mercury and this our Solar System just Solar System.So we have different Research Centers in humankind for Aeronautically Systematically Space Delving. So the( ISS ) is since decades under great Values & Under Great Aspirations established in North America. So in former Eastern Germany people was calling astronaut just cosmonauts. The ISS ( International Space Station )is hugh presently in this time of humankind technology greatly established & initiated. I believe enormously strides will come to galatic human scientifically space & exploration and delving. Roscosmos anyway is also very cooperative with their basic skills & professional operating goodwill to create a russian voice in this happen to accomplish even more success with NASA and Roscosmos just a great sourcing for scientific research in world. This will be maybe 2024 in the ISS History cause differernt Conditions lead to the absolutely ending of russian presence in the space exploration just in the ISS . So North America is flexible in development and futuristic exploration in the cosmos. So Space Exploration & Delving in America is developed & structured. The ISS, SpaceX and NASA have great cooperation.
Federal Republic of Germany, DE , UTC +2 Western Civilization, About ( ISS ) NASA North America ,USA World 20.08.2022
( World ( ISS Systematic ) Influx Intergalactic Spacecraft Model ) Second Big Project from A.P.P
So now in the 21st Century gates are open for the Space Delving & Exploring Indices & Possibilities for Aeronautically Research in the Galaxy. In March 2022 this year the APOLLO 9 launched it's first test flight on lunar expeditions. Cosmic Targets from Webb Telescopically System( Canadian & European Space Agencies ) are operating united and will coming forward with first spectacular images & galactically records from universe from WEBB Telescopically Research & Development.Elon Musk was also creating & accelerating and leading control SpaceX in the first time of beginning of the century. So i know in world humankind history since the Russian Cosmonaut & Astronaut Juri Alexejewitsch Gagarin was first time in the galaxy & cosmos and giving the pride & honor to the Russian Federation as a revolutionary systematically human being, i know the revolution to the Planet ( Mars )can also get reaching in possibilities & opportunities jus chances for the world space discovery especially the USA ( United States of America ) India & Roscosmos ( Russian Federation )to accomplish this human utopically change in human history to land on a planetary systematically landing on the Mars in Transplanetary delving would be for the mondial science a great deal. Even different countries is exploring in the ( ISS )working united in the galaxy & cosmos with overalls just they have also food packages for nourishment. The Gravíty is differentiated than on the planet earth.
Also the Kingdom Saudi Arabia has it's own Space Discovery & Protokollierungen and Delving Affiliation with the universe from ( Riyadh). Worldwide we as human beings is delving in space over 60 years in human era timeline.
So the USA is very hugh advanced & professional in the ISS Delving Space Station. This year 2022 12.September the ( NASA ) from US is celebrating John F. Kennedy's Speech " from 1962 We choose to go to the Moon " from Rice University Houston,Texas. So also Mohammed Bin Salman is in development of Space Delving & Exploration in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA ). Also France is in this subject object very advanced & developed and hugh established also the Archipelago Japan from ( Asia ).Also Canadian Research in Space is great to admire. So the humankind is growing in Space Infrastructure & ISS and Technology since the 20th century. The Mars Expedition is a enormously hugh handling from the USA and their concerned People creating Technologies & Creation of Modern Systematically Physics to land on this Planet in a another dimension of a space from a planet from other civilization. So on the 29. July 1958, in USA the NASA was built and founded.Especially also the ( Hubble Telescopically Appliance ) was established & founded 24.April 1990,12:33 UTC and sent into th galaxy.Hubble as a Telescope which can record & capture beautifully imagery from above just pigments if a intergalactic Protocolation of stars & flickering starlight or imagery of dimensions which is looking utopian.So the ISS the Astronauts is accustomed to different daily measurements which is different than on earth. There is also Oxygen Volume Cases & Tanks on ISS in Vessels ( Oxygen Systematic Volumes ). So Joe Biden can be proud of Elon Musk. Even Musk what he reached in lifetime, very enormously success which is astonishment right. Elon Musk also was an affiliation of creating PAYPAL (Online Pay System). Or Joe Biden and Kamala Harris from Indian Roots which is the Vice Presidency from the United States of America can be very proud of the US Enthusiasm of the American Astronauts in the Cosmos of the ISS. So also the Astronauts does pre-prepare & get in to a phase of training mentally & physically before the ISS Activity Commitment. So SpaceX has different Volume and Strength and Space of Rockets in the Halls where they are built & and in next turn engaged in get in to Takeoff. So the Indian Aeronautics Science & Native Delving & Exploring Organization is the Indian Space Research Organization ( ISRO ) from India Asia. Also Indian Astronauts with Overall are equipped & established in the ISS from World. As well as will be there 15 further alternative names of the World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Universe System A.P. P. But more short & small summarized & elucidated.First is or World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P Source, Second World ( ISS ) Creational Development Spacecraft System ( A.P. P ). And to be continued 13 for complete exploring project next gonna folllow in the Second Big Project from andreaspennophotography.de as soon as possible.
Rewritten ( 27.08.2022 )
Western Civilization, Second Big Project from Diverse Industry, A.P.P About Aeropsace in World / Protokoll 15.08.2022 AD
Well, this time Aerospace & ( ISS ) are attractive in humankind. Elon Musk is especially the most flexible & knowledge carrying human being alive from the United States of America with a lot of attributes & professional works already created in human scientifically & progressive development of rockets & a first orbital class rocket capable of REFLIGHT in Cosmos History.So SpaceX is in galaxy & what is above us of earth very developed, up to date and established. Also 15 Countries are in the ISS available & comfortable and confident till this moment at their second home. So also the FALCON has 174 Launches & 134 Landings in the news of SpaceX. So Elon Musk is also worldwide busy by his automobile car-manufacturer Trading Mark Tesla also in Berlin/ DE & China, eventually next decades als in different Countries in prevalence for world circulating business for Musk. So SpaceX Falcon 9 is reusable.The Falcon is suitable & appropriated for transportation from humans & products of world.The FALCON 9 is 2296 Feet in Height.It's very constructive to build. So the United States of America is very busy by aerospace & space exploration since long time. So also nowadays NASA has a history of MARS Exploration & Research of Transplanetary Scale since 25 Years of human era timeline.So also to make the point clear why the project name WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P.P). This term intergalactic is maybe unrealistically, but was chosen only for the great name of how it sounds now for further articulation & usage. So the NASA is nowadays in research of different in space.Also the Chandra Telescope System consists of 4 pairs of mirrors and their support infrastructure. .So the indian space orgnanization from their native country is named ( ISRO ) from India.They had also last time their ( Moon) Research Development Initiative. Also Canada is in the ISS available.Also SpaceX designs & manufactures rockets & space operating systematically equipment & industry. Also Saudi Arabia the Kingdom is since the Vision 2030 very engaged in different supplementary diverse industries in world. Also involved 2 Billion Dollar Investment for Space Program is established for the Vision 2030 of Arabia. So Joe Biden has a great compliment for the NASA & Boeing and SpaceX. Every President since 1776 AD ( Independence of Country ) of the United States of America would be proud of Elon Musk & ( NASA ) . Also progress & advancement in world of aerospace is accomplished & done. So maybe next centuries maybe eventually the humankind will live on the ( Mars ) or other delved transplanetary systems of space. Nowadays it's impossible to think like that , but our human resource civilization nowadays doesn't know this at this particular time .So also Norway & Switzerland are in the ISS affiliated. The World is exploring in space just with diligence & valor. So once in world Neil Amstrong landed on the Moon. So now in the 21st century SpaceX will develop different on the infrastructure & technologically sites also the Russian Federation ( Roscosmos ) which will also leave the ISS next years is hugh arranged in professional space exploration of world. So also different aspects to tell the space exploration is also a Space Race. So eventually gravity is important in the space to deal with. In ISS Members have also food packages sent from human earth above. So also Establishment from SpaceX is very modern & intellectual in competition of other galaxy space corporations & space industries. The ISS is hundreds of kilometers away from earth just the plateau & ground. Also the ( Middle East ) has beautifully & promulgating and promising geographically sites. Also United Arab Emirates ( Vereinigte Arabische Emirate ) ( UAE ) & Qatar are very greatly to observe from Satellite Capturings & Recordings. So the Middle East is hugh enormously to tolerate of Satellite Records from above which are also worldwide known. So also Satellites are crystalized for Capturings from above just the geoecologcally & geography of world. So the ( ISS ) Creational Development Spacecraft System ( A.P. P ) known as a secondary name is under development & structure for the next time scale. World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System A.P. P is also a secondary name & definition of the Project name WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P.P). Next Name is World ( ISS ) Intelligent & Space Civilization Operation ( A.P.P ). Now 3 articulated Names are known, confident & established for this project of my corporation in world. Now 12 expressive & articulated definitions are freely left for this challenge & project. So i guess to say next alternative name is World ( Corporate ) Space Center Initiative Milky Way Snack ( A.P.P ) and 5 from 15 just the fifth of fifteen, in cause it''s called in world from my corporation & industry just the Second Hugh Project of Blog. It's called World ( ISS ) Research Operating Galaxy Quest ( A.P.P ) . So the next paragraph is about just the phrase in talks around of establishment of the commodity of all the equipment & corporate usage of development of this industry. Also SpaceX has rockets which are built of solid & fundamentally systematic commodity. It's very expensive to finance SpaceX or Roscosmos spare parts,industrial segments, propulsion development, crude rocket propellant is the reaction mass of a rocket. This reaction mass is ejected at the highest achievable velocity from a rocket engine to produce thrust. The energy required can either come from the propellants themselves, as with a chemical rocket, or from an external source, as with ion engines, especially the metal & solid steel circulating steelh of framing of the rocket, the design of a rocket for prestige accurately drawers to design & get under opportunities a pattern &sketches a complete design of a human civilized space rocket alike. USA does possess infrastructure of a different Hubble Telescope in cosmos & galaxy. So the ( ISS ) is to admire what human beings created in world across the timeline of the 20th century & 21st century. So also ( ISS) is also difficult to manage for the residents of this space shuttle. Different Health Circumstances are in the constellation to look at.Worldwide also people is interested in Telescopically Systematic Usage. By looking at nights into the sky & stars above with family. Also the Civilization from NASA is precious & you get updated information from them on their personal internet address also Japanese & Indian Resources are in the web, especially also Chinese Productivity & Development in Space Race is welcomed. Also China has now since 2022 AD it's own Space Developed Station in Cosmos.So China is now in own galaxy observance & also to explore everything above,also with Satellite Circulating Establishment above.
This Journalism & Protocol was written & established from Andreas Penno.
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WORLD ( ISS ) INTERGALACTIC SPACE EXPLORING ( UNIVERSE ) SYSTEM (A.P. P) /
World ( Corporate ) Space Center Initiative Milky Way Snack ( A.P. P )
World ( ISS ) Research Operating Galaxy Quest ( A.P.P )
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Protokoll / DE / Federal Republic of Germany / EU / Protokollierung / About The ( ISS ) in Space / Development & History of ISS ( Source Wikipedia ) A.P. P 29.09.2022 AD
The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.
The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, a 1984 American proposal to construct a permanently crewed Earth-orbiting station, and the contemporaneous Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal from 1976 with similar aims. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations and the American Skylab. It is the largest artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda Service Module or visiting spacecraft. The ISS circles the Earth in roughly 93 minutes, completing 15.5 orbits per day.
The station is divided into two sections: the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is operated by Russia, while the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) is run by the United States as well as by the other states. The Russian segment includes six modules. The US segment includes ten modules, whose support services are distributed 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA.
Roscosmos had previously endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024, having proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. However, continued cooperation has been rendered uncertain by the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and subsequent international sanctions on Russia, who theoretically, may lower, redirect, or cut funding from their side of the space station due to the sanctions set on them.
The first ISS component was launched in 1998, and the first long-term residents arrived on 2 November 2000 after being launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on 31 October 2000. The station has since been continuously occupied for 21 years and 331 days, the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by the Mir space station. The latest major pressurised module, Nauka, was fitted in 2021, a little over ten years after the previous major addition, Leonardo in 2011. Development and assembly of the station continues, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016, and several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch starting in 2021. In January 2022, the station's operation authorization was extended to 2030, with funding secured within the United States through that year. There have been calls to privatize ISS operations after that point to pursue future Moon and Mars missions, with former NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine stating: "given our current budget constraints, if we want to go to the moon and we want to go to Mars, we need to commercialize low Earth orbit and go on to the next step."
The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, photovoltaic solar arrays, thermal radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles. The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the SpaceX Dragon 2, and the Northrop Grumman Space Systems Cygnus, and formerly the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and SpaceX Dragon 1. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. As of April 2022, 251 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 20 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times.
( History )
This section is an excerpt from International Space Station programme § History and conception.
In the early 1980s, NASA planned to launch a modular space station called Freedom as a counterpart to the Soviet Salyut and Mir space stations. In 1984 the ESA was invited to participate in Space Station Freedom, and the ESA approved the Columbus laboratory by 1987. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), or Kibō, was announced in 1985, as part of the Freedom space station in response to a NASA request in 1982.
In early 1985, science ministers from the European Space Agency (ESA) countries approved the Columbus programme, the most ambitious effort in space undertaken by that organisation at the time. The plan spearheaded by Germany and Italy included a module which would be attached to Freedom, and with the capability to evolve into a full-fledged European orbital outpost before the end of the century. The space station was also going to tie the emerging European and Japanese national space programmes closer to the US-led project, thereby preventing those nations from becoming major, independent competitors too.
In September 1993, American Vice-President Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin announced plans for a new space station, which eventually became the International Space Station. They also agreed, in preparation for this new project, that the United States would be involved in the Mir programme, including American Shuttles docking, in the Shuttle–Mir programme.
On 12 April 2021, at a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, then-Deputy Prime Minister Yury Borisov announced he had decided that Russia might withdraw from the ISS programme in 2025. According to Russian authorities, the timeframe of the station’s operations has expired and its condition leaves much to be desired. On 26 July 2022, Borisov, who had become head of Roscosmos, submitted to Putin his plans for withdrawal from the programme after 2024. However, Robyn Gatens, the NASA official in charge of space station operations, responded that NASA had not received any formal notices from Roscosmos concerning withdrawal plans.
The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, with power, data, cooling, and crew available to support experiments. Small uncrewed spacecraft can also provide platforms for experiments, especially those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed potentially for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers.
The ISS simplifies individual experiments by allowing groups of experiments to share the same launches and crew time. Research is conducted in a wide variety of fields, including astrobiology, astronomy, physical sciences, materials science, space weather, meteorology, and human research including space medicine and the life sciences. Scientists on Earth have timely access to the data and can suggest experimental modifications to the crew. If follow-on experiments are necessary, the routinely scheduled launches of resupply craft allows new hardware to be launched with relative ease. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing approximately 160 person-hours per week of labour with a crew of six. However, a considerable amount of crew time is taken up by station maintenance.
Perhaps the most notable ISS experiment is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is intended to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe. According to NASA, the AMS is as important as the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently docked on station, it could not have been easily accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power and bandwidth needs. On 3 April 2013, scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the AMS. According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays".
The space environment is hostile to life. Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting primarily of protons and other subatomic charged particles from the solar wind, in addition to cosmic rays), high vacuum, extreme temperatures, and microgravity. Some simple forms of life called extremophiles, as well as small invertebrates called tardigrades can survive in this environment in an extremely dry state through desiccation.
Medical research improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. These data will be used to determine whether high duration human spaceflight and space colonisation are feasible. In 2006, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggested that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary cruise, such as the six-month interval required to travel to Mars.
Medical studies are conducted aboard the ISS on behalf of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). Prominent among these is the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity study in which astronauts perform ultrasound scans under the guidance of remote experts. The study considers the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in space. Usually, there is no physician on board the ISS and diagnosis of medical conditions is a challenge. It is anticipated that remotely guided ultrasound scans will have application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations where access to a trained physician is difficult.
In August 2020, scientists reported that bacteria from Earth, particularly Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria, which is highly resistant to environmental hazards, were found to survive for three years in outer space, based on studies conducted on the International Space Station. These findings supported the notion of panspermia, the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed in various ways, including space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids or contaminated spacecraft.
Remote sensing of the Earth, astronomy, and deep space research on the ISS have dramatically increased during the 2010s after the completion of the US Orbital Segment in 2011. Throughout the more than 20 years of the ISS program researchers aboard the ISS and on the ground have examined aerosols, ozone, lightning, and oxides in Earth's atmosphere, as well as the Sun, cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter, and dark matter in the universe. Examples of Earth-viewing remote sensing experiments that have flown on the ISS are the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, ISS-RapidScat, ECOSTRESS, the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation, and the Cloud Aerosol Transport System. ISS-based astronomy telescopes and experiments include SOLAR, the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer, the Calorimetric Electron Telescope, the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer.
Gravity at the altitude of the ISS is approximately 90% as strong as at Earth's surface, but objects in orbit are in a continuous state of freefall, resulting in an apparent state of weightlessness. This perceived weightlessness is disturbed by five effects: Drag from the residual atmosphere. Vibration from the movements of mechanical systems and the crew. Actuation of the on-board attitude control moment gyroscopes. Thruster firings for attitude or orbital changes.
Gravity-gradient effects, also known as tidal effects. Items at different locations within the ISS would, if not attached to the station, follow slightly different orbits. Being mechanically connected these items experience small forces that keep the station moving as a rigid body.Researchers are investigating the effect of the station's near-weightless environment on the evolution, development, growth and internal processes of plants and animals. In response to some of the data, NASA wants to investigate microgravity's effects on the growth of three-dimensional, human-like tissues and the unusual protein crystals that can be formed in space.
Investigating the physics of fluids in microgravity will provide better models of the behaviour of fluids. Because fluids can be almost completely combined in microgravity, physicists investigate fluids that do not mix well on Earth. Examining reactions that are slowed by low gravity and low temperatures will improve our understanding of superconductivity.The study of materials science is an important ISS research activity, with the objective of reaping economic benefits through the improvement of techniques used on the ground. Other areas of interest include the effect of low gravity on combustion, through the study of the efficiency of burning and control of emissions and pollutants. These findings may improve knowledge about energy production and lead to economic and environmental benefits.
( Exploration )
The ISS provides a location in the relative safety of low Earth orbit to test spacecraft systems that will be required for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. This provides experience in operations, maintenance as well as repair and replacement activities on-orbit. This will help develop essential skills in operating spacecraft farther from Earth, reduce mission risks, and advance the capabilities of interplanetary spacecraft. Referring to the MARS-500 experiment, a crew isolation experiment conducted on Earth, ESA states that "Whereas the ISS is essential for answering questions concerning the possible impact of weightlessness, radiation and other space-specific factors, aspects such as the effect of long-term isolation and confinement can be more appropriately addressed via ground-based simulations". Sergey Krasnov, the head of human space flight programmes for Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, in 2011 suggested a "shorter version" of MARS-500 may be carried out on the ISS.
In 2009, noting the value of the partnership framework itself, Sergey Krasnov wrote, "When compared with partners acting separately, partners developing complementary abilities and resources could give us much more assurance of the success and safety of space exploration. The ISS is helping further advance near-Earth space exploration and realisation of prospective programmes of research and exploration of the Solar system, including the Moon and Mars." A crewed mission to Mars may be a multinational effort involving space agencies and countries outside the current ISS partnership. In 2010, ESA Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain stated his agency was ready to propose to the other four partners that China, India and South Korea be invited to join the ISS partnership. NASA chief Charles Bolden stated in February 2011, "Any mission to Mars is likely to be a global effort". Currently, US federal legislation prevents NASA co-operation with China on space projects.
( Education and Cultural Outreach )
The ISS crew provides opportunities for students on Earth by running student-developed experiments, making educational demonstrations, allowing for student participation in classroom versions of ISS experiments, and directly engaging students using radio, and email. ESA offers a wide range of free teaching materials that can be downloaded for use in classrooms. In one lesson, students can navigate a 3D model of the interior and exterior of the ISS, and face spontaneous challenges to solve in real time.
The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) aims to inspire children to "pursue craftsmanship" and to heighten their "awareness of the importance of life and their responsibilities in society". Through a series of education guides, students develop a deeper understanding of the past and near-term future of crewed space flight, as well as that of Earth and life. In the JAXA "Seeds in Space" experiments, the mutation effects of spaceflight on plant seeds aboard the ISS are explored by growing sunflower seeds that have flown on the ISS for about nine months. In the first phase of Kibō utilisation from 2008 to mid-2010, researchers from more than a dozen Japanese universities conducted experiments in diverse fields.
Cultural activities are another major objective of the ISS programme. Tetsuo Tanaka, the director of JAXA's Space Environment and Utilization Center, has said: "There is something about space that touches even people who are not interested in science."
Amateur Radio on the ISS (ARISS) is a volunteer programme that encourages students worldwide to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, through amateur radio communications opportunities with the ISS crew. ARISS is an international working group, consisting of delegations from nine countries including several in Europe, as well as Japan, Russia, Canada, and the United States. In areas where radio equipment cannot be used, speakerphones connect students to ground stations which then connect the calls to the space station.
First Orbit is a 2011 feature-length documentary film about Vostok 1, the first crewed space flight around the Earth. By matching the orbit of the ISS to that of Vostok 1 as closely as possible, in terms of ground path and time of day, documentary filmmaker Christopher Riley and ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli were able to film the view that Yuri Gagarin saw on his pioneering orbital space flight. This new footage was cut together with the original Vostok 1 mission audio recordings sourced from the Russian State Archive. Nespoli is credited as the director of photography for this documentary film, as he recorded the majority of the footage himself during Expedition 26/27. The film was streamed in a global YouTube premiere in 2011 under a free licence through the website firstorbit.org.
In May 2013, commander Chris Hadfield shot a music video of David Bowie's "Space Oddity" on board the station, which was released on YouTube. It was the first music video ever to be filmed in space.
In November 2017, while participating in Expedition 52/53 on the ISS, Paolo Nespoli made two recordings of his spoken voice (one in English and the other in his native Italian), for use on Wikipedia articles. These were the first content made in space specifically for Wikipedia.
In November 2021, a virtual reality exhibit called The Infinite featuring life aboard the ISS was announced.
( Manufacturing )
Since the International Space Station is a multi-national collaborative project, the components for in-orbit assembly were manufactured in various countries around the world. Beginning in the mid-1990s, the U.S. components Destiny, Unity, the Integrated Truss Structure, and the solar arrays were fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Michoud Assembly Facility. These modules were delivered to the Operations and Checkout Building and the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) for final assembly and processing for launch.
The Russian modules, including Zarya and Zvezda, were manufactured at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center in Moscow. Zvezda was initially manufactured in 1985 as a component for Mir-2, but was never launched and instead became the ISS Service Module.
The European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module was manufactured at the EADS Astrium Space Transportation facilities in Bremen, Germany, along with many other contractors throughout Europe. The other ESA-built modules – Harmony, Tranquility, the Leonardo MPLM, and the Cupola – were initially manufactured at the Thales Alenia Space factory in Turin, Italy. The structural steel hulls of the modules were transported by aircraft to the Kennedy Space Center SSPF for launch processing.
The Japanese Experiment Module Kibō, was fabricated in various technology manufacturing facilities in Japan, at the NASDA (now JAXA) Tsukuba Space Center, and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. The Kibo module was transported by ship and flown by aircraft to the SSPF.
The Mobile Servicing System, consisting of the Canadarm2 and the Dextre grapple fixture, was manufactured at various factories in Canada (such as the David Florida Laboratory) and the United States, under contract by the Canadian Space Agency. The mobile base system, a connecting framework for Canadarm2 mounted on rails, was built by Northrop Grumman.
( Assembly )
The ISS was slowly assembled over more than a decade of spaceflights and crews.
An iconic view of the completed station as seen from Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132, 23 May 2010
Main articles: Assembly of the International Space Station and List of ISS spacewalks
The assembly of the International Space Station, a major endeavour in space architecture, began in November 1998. Russian modules launched and docked robotically, with the exception of Rassvet. All other modules were delivered by the Space Shuttle, which required installation by ISS and Shuttle crewmembers using the Canadarm2 (SSRMS) and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs); by 5 June 2011, they had added 159 components during more than 1,000 hours of EVA. 127 of these spacewalks originated from the station, and the remaining 32 were launched from the airlocks of docked Space Shuttles. The beta angle of the station had to be considered at all times during construction.
The first module of the ISS, Zarya, was launched on 20 November 1998 on an autonomous Russian Proton rocket. It provided propulsion, attitude control, communications, and electrical power, but lacked long-term life support functions. A passive NASA module, Unity, was launched two weeks later aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-88 and attached to Zarya by astronauts during EVAs. The Unity module has two Pressurised Mating Adapters (PMAs): one connects permanently to Zarya and the other allowed the Space Shuttle to dock to the space station. At that time, the Russian (Soviet) station Mir was still inhabited, and the ISS remained uncrewed for two years. On 12 July 2000, the Zvezda module was launched into orbit. Onboard preprogrammed commands deployed its solar arrays and communications antenna. Zvezda then became the passive target for a rendezvous with Zarya and Unity, maintaining a station-keeping orbit while the Zarya–Unity vehicle performed the rendezvous and docking via ground control and the Russian automated rendezvous and docking system. Zarya's computer transferred control of the station to Zvezda's computer soon after docking. Zvezda added sleeping quarters, a toilet, kitchen, CO2 scrubbers, dehumidifier, oxygen generators, and exercise equipment, plus data, voice and television communications with mission control, enabling permanent habitation of the station.
The first resident crew, Expedition 1, arrived in November 2000 on Soyuz TM-31. At the end of the first day on the station, astronaut Bill Shepherd requested the use of the radio call sign "Alpha", which he and cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev preferred to the more cumbersome "International Space Station". The name "Alpha" had previously been used for the station in the early 1990s, and its use was authorised for the whole of Expedition 1. Shepherd had been advocating the use of a new name to project managers for some time. Referencing a naval tradition in a pre-launch news conference he had said: "For thousands of years, humans have been going to sea in ships. People have designed and built these vessels, launched them with a good feeling that a name will bring good fortune to the crew and success to their voyage." Yuri Semenov, the President of Russian Space Corporation Energia at the time, disapproved of the name "Alpha" as he felt that Mir was the first modular space station, so the names "Beta" or "Mir 2" for the ISS would have been more fitting. Expedition 1 arrived midway between the Space Shuttle flights of missions STS-92 and STS-97. These two flights each added segments of the station's Integrated Truss Structure, which provided the station with Ku-band communication for US television, additional attitude support needed for the additional mass of the USOS, and substantial solar arrays to supplement the station's four existing arrays. Over the next two years, the station continued to expand. A Soyuz-U rocket delivered the Pirs docking compartment. The Space Shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour delivered the Destiny laboratory and Quest airlock, in addition to the station's main robot arm, the Canadarm2, and several more segments of the Integrated Truss Structure. The expansion schedule was interrupted in 2003 by the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster and a resulting hiatus in flights. The Space Shuttle was grounded until 2005 with STS-114 flown by Discovery. Assembly resumed in 2006 with the arrival of STS-115 with Atlantis, which delivered the station's second set of solar arrays. Several more truss segments and a third set of arrays were delivered on STS-116, STS-117, and STS-118. As a result of the major expansion of the station's power-generating capabilities, more pressurised modules could be accommodated, and the Harmony node and Columbus European laboratory were added. These were soon followed by the first two components of Kibō. In March 2009, STS-119 completed the Integrated Truss Structure with the installation of the fourth and final set of solar arrays. The final section of Kibō was delivered in July 2009 on STS-127, followed by the Russian Poisk module. The third node, Tranquility, was delivered in February 2010 during STS-130 by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, alongside the Cupola, followed by the penultimate Russian module, Rassvet, in May 2010. Rassvet was delivered by Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-132 in exchange for the Russian Proton delivery of the US-funded Zarya module in 1998. The last pressurised module of the USOS, Leonardo, was brought to the station in February 2011 on the final flight of Discovery, STS-133. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was delivered by Endeavour on STS-134 the same year. By June 2011, the station consisted of 15 pressurised modules and the Integrated Truss Structure. Two power modules called NEM-1 and NEM-2. are still to be launched. Russia's new primary research module Nauka docked in July 2021, along with the European Robotic Arm which will be able to relocate itself to different parts of the Russian modules of the station. Russia's latest addition, the nodal module Prichal docked in November 2021. The gross mass of the station changes over time. The total launch mass of the modules on orbit is about 417,289 kg (919,965 lb) (as of 3 September 2011). The mass of experiments, spare parts, personal effects, crew, foodstuff, clothing, propellants, water supplies, gas supplies, docked spacecraft, and other items add to the total mass of the station. Hydrogen gas is constantly vented overboard by the oxygen generators.
DE / Protokoll / Europe / A.P.P / About NASA / ISS / SpaceX (Elon Musk ) / World Space Exploration / Space News / Protokollierung / Western Civilization / 26.10.2022
So the ( ISS ) is promulgating great news from above in the universe & galaxy with their spacecraft & shuttle above. Satellites are flying through the whole cosmos. So NASA's Lucy Spacecraft captures Images on Earth Exploration & Discovery,also Moon & Earth Gravity involved.NASA Coverage Set for NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System-2 Launch has started now 4 Quarter 2022.NASA will release information & launch activities of the ( NOAA ) National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Joint Polar ( Satellite ) System- 2 ( JPSS-2) directly mission.So India was a lot in Research Study in the Moon last years .Now Fourth Quarter Two Very Different Payloads flying on one rocket are ready for their establishment & ride to space. Creating an integrated stack that stands approximately 27 feet tall, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Joint Polar Satellite System-2 (JPSS-2) and NASA’s Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) spacecraft are safely secured inside the United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket’s payload fairing at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California. So this little excerpt was from the NASA Web Address NASA.gov.A lot of projects from NASA & SpaceX is coming ahead till 2030,just so much attractive activity also from NASA & SpaceX will soon follow , they stand also in brilliant & unprecedented, extraordinary american proud unity.Till 2050-2100 by my own words, from me Andreas. the strides in infrastructure & technologically paramountly systematic development from the intelligence of humanity and space opportunities will be enormous & immense, especially for the United States of America ( NASA ) the US Corporation & SpaceX, also India and Russian Federation, Tokyo and Riyadh.So Elon your next corporation published time ago is very astonishment & fascination how smart & slick you does lead your business worldwide also in China & Germany and US by the representation & inaugural in Berlin from Tesla. Also the Market Cap from Tesla is so hugh.NASA will be 2100 creative, world intelligent & presently gigantically in Human History in World with superior intelligence for the equipment & establishment for Human Space Exploration. Also India's ( ISRO ) Indian Space Research Organisation has a lot to offer. India is in Research for the Galaxy Quest since 1969. The Bugdet of annual income is 13.700 CRORE ( US ) 1.7 Billion Dollar in India. Headquarters of ( ISRO ) is Bangalore.( ISRO) made since foundation of corporation & industry in world hugh advancement clearly to say. But India is not part of the ( ISS ) and Russia also not more long as far as the politically situation now with Russia.So also Mohammed Bin Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is very interesting in Investment from his ( Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ) ( KSA ). Spain, Sweden,Switzerland ( Zurich ) ,U.K ( United Kingdom ), Canada ( Ottawa ),Japan (Tokyo ), Norway ( Oslo ),Germany ( Berlin ),France ( Paris ),Italy ( Rome ) are all affiliated with ( ISS ) International Space Station above the human civilization earth. So the space race is also actively now in the 21st century.So ( ISS ) Expeditions started from beginning of all in 2000 till now 2022 with all nations & countries affiliated mostly ( USA ) & (RUS ). So Space Promulgating News is every day daily in world. So the next expedition with Astronauts is now in the Fourth Quarter October planned with SPACEX Crew-4 Italien Samantha Cristoforetti (2), BI, CDR Vereinigte Staaten ( US ) Kjell Lindgren (2), BI Vereinigte Staaten Robert Hines (1), BI Vereinigte Staaten Jessica Watkins (1), BI and in 2023 is planned since fifth October 2022 till March 2023 ( Space X ) ( Crew 6 ) in planning from this circumstances from astronauts in native origin somebody japanese & somebody russian and two americans on this trip. So the expeditions is meant summarized that astronauts have a journey to the ISS in the galaxy to dock on the Station. So there till this moment had come ( 68 ) Officially Expeditions in world human history in connection & connectivity to the Trip to ISS is till nowadays presently till 2022 4th Quarter. So we as humans have also different technology & installation and development for our infrastructure worldwide. Also Atomic Plants ( For Energy Creation ) are necessary in a infrastructure of our society.Nowadays ( Fossil Fuel ) is decisive for winning energy & use energy in a country. Venezuela & Saudi Arabia are the richest established opportunistic countries with Oil Resources in world. Also Qatar has the third most Liquefied Natural Gas ) Resources in World. Top Leader is Russia.Second is Iran. Qatar exports hugh amountments of (LNG ) on the planet over the oceans & sea. So the world will change next decades & centuries of human history for all the generations also for the ( ISS ).So also ROSCOSMOS ( Russian Aerospace Central from Moscow ) is battling strong for new opportunities & possibilities in russian space infrastructure & technology in their own element & research space fundamentally discovery above. So the NASA & World Space Resources has topics monthly readdressing news for the whole planet and every state,country,village,metropolitan area, world spot, all has the world civilized space news for everybody in expectations. So Intercontinental people is interested daily in space news. World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System (A.P. P) +Second Creative Big Project from andreaspennophotography.de is named this project. It's the Second Hugh Big Project from ( A.P.P ) the Corporation created from me which has multiple millions of results worldwide on Research Machines also on yahoo,bing,google( graphically )yandex,baidu, lycos and all over the space of Research Machines in World. So different projects is coming from ISS & NASA and SpaceX and also ( A.P. P. )
North American Space Exploration & Development / SPACEX / Affiliated / ( Base Buildup ) Brown Colored Image from SpaceX ( Brochure )
World / Western Civilization / DE / Germany / Humankind / (A.P. P ) / NASA ( Development ) / Breaking News / World Aerospace Establishment / ISS / NASA / Protokoll 31.10.2022 AD
So the World is turning every 24 hours over the axis. The NASA has a lot to do. Elon Musk is busy with ( Twitter ). The NASA the main epic main pillar of Aerospace nowadays in the world has opportunities & possibilities different a lot to achieve this century. The ISS was in 2022 in a specific moment deviating a rock in universe. I mean isn't it a beautifully & fabulous moment in humanitairan life to know that we human beings does live in a galaxy on a planet which has billions of humankinda people on a planet earth civilization in the cosmos. Astronomers was achieving a success in history and could say officially there are 100 Billion ( Planetary ) Planets in our Solar System in human achieving entire goals. We have also 8 Planets in our ( Sun )named Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and then the possible Planet Nine.So Aeropsace Science is extraordinary important, if you study the universe and NASA you achieve great confident information about the ( ISS ). So this ( Protokollierung ) is the fifth the 5th from Project. The main headquarters from the NASA is in Washington D.C ( District of Columbia ) USA. So 5 further alias names for this hugh Project are + ( ISS ) Human Exploration ( Cosmos ) Space Development (.A.P.P ) +( ISS) Delving Operational Systematically Transplanetary ( System ) A.P.P + ( ISS ) Human International Globally Aeropsace Research Center ( A.P.P )+ World Creational & Development ( Space ) Experienced Model (A.P.P )+ ( ISS ) Universe Main Decipher & Media Intellectual Commission ( A.P.P). These are 5 components and names different allocate & alternative names for the project name enlisted above. So also the Middle East has charismatically & pristine Satellite Capturings & Archived Recordings in the world wide web especially on google graphically machine. Also on ( A.P.P ) numerous & versatile capturings from the Coasts of Qatar of the Gulf or the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain ( Satellite ) Imagery illustrated from above. My Corporation has different to offer in this subject. So ( A.P.P ) and this second big & hugh project is planned to be accomplished in 4 Quarter 2023.So the (ISS ) is astonishment. They have also above the earth on the shuttle food packages & ( OXYGEN ) Vaccums on the ISS. Also the Federal Republic of Germany is presently on the ISS. My own native country in world.So Aeropace started really in humankind in 1960. Also Amstrong with the Moon Expedition & Landing which was world history.So Space Shuttles also couple on the ISS from earth or de-coupling are genius. Also the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia wants to let a woman get into the space by 2023. So the ISS is turning over the Planet Earth circulating on a orbit and is under one option recording the whole surface of the planet earth for further purpose.So Astronauts on earth is immense trained & schooled for the commitment in space. Also Gravity,Foods,Living in Space ,( Gravity ) for long Sojourn on the ISS. So the Space Race is actively on in the 21st century immense from all nations. It's a stereotype & routine for all countries. So also Switzerland from Zurich is presently on the International Space Station. ( Tiangong ) is a own International Space Station of China started in 2022. So they have their own shuttle in aerospace development of world. So the World Creational & Development ( Space ) Experienced Model (A.P.P ) Project just the( ISS ) Human International Globally Aeropsace Research Center ( A.P.P ) is my second big fascinating project of (A.P.P ) started on the 20.08.2022 is very interesting if you study this sector of my company & diverse industry. It's a great contribution & establishment for the Aeropsace Worldwide just the information just graphically or written. It's definitely excellent,promising & part of A.P.P. It's just enormous genius created & established on a great niveau, also a great lesson & study just information for everybody in the world. Well Projects from the ( ISS ) till 2040 are big sized & established till coming to an end. 2050 will be the delving & discovery in galaxy for the humanity wide-reaching. So the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is exploring in Aerospace & delving differently and smart especially till their Vision 2030. Well, now 2022 AD this year written in human world history our infrastructure for space equipment will develop in mass development till 2054 or 2075 or 2100.We as humans can achieve a lot .The Human Being is intelligent & paramountly smart. Opportunities & Possibilties will supplementary come on surface in future of world also Mohammed's NEOM " The Line ", the full-fledged developed & established green city which will fully curated established 2050 with its civilization. The ( ISS ) has a maximum speed line of 28.000 km /h. In November 1998 it started and was actively. So to discover & exlplore space & aeronautics is gigantically interesting,opportunistic & pristine to research all the bright stars & planets around us. So this World ( Corporate ) Space Center Initiative Milkyway Snack ( A.P.P ) Project is defintely hughly touching you. If you read my passages & phrases i create for this block & site. Mohammed Bin Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud the prince from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is investing in the program & campaign for aeropsace creative & established in futurisic common ways, just constructive, innovative & developed for the Kingdom. So the Middle East has utopian charismatically imagery for the spectator & experienced individual watching all the portrayals from above caught by the satellites just also represented from the World ( ISS ) Intelligent & Space Civilization Operation ( A.P.P ) source from A.P.P on the Block & Site.So also ( Bahrain ) & ( Abu Dhabi )or Dubai or Kuwait's Structure is promising from above. So this Project is great embellished with a Resourcing & Source of Greatness & Intelligence. This is the 5th Protokollierung ( Protokoll ) of Project. The Universe & Moon is also in great Observatory of (NASA ) National Aeronautics Space Administation and ( SPACEX ) & NASA want to achieve goals which are untouchable & futuristic enormous under country wide planning to achieve goals & destinys to land with hugh gigantically technologically armament on the Transplanetary ( MARS ) . A planet the humankind from now on 31.10.2022 AD never landed on in history books. So Operation ( MARS ) & the Landing will be not very easy to transform into reality. Nowadays the Space Race is attractive & on all the time up in all 4 Quarters since years. So the United States of America is demonstrating in a will which is very hard working NASA Employees & Astronauts which are flexible & confindent in this economically happen.
Resource NASA.GOV / TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMATICALLY FOR DEVELOPMENT / VOLUME INSTALLATION ( A.P. P )
Aerospace / Astronautics / Aerospace Article from ( Wikipedia Resourcing ) / EU / Germany / Protokoll 26.11.2022 AD
World ( ISS ) Development Revolutionary Cosmos System ( A.P.P )
Second Big Creative Project from ( A.P.P ) after the First Big Project Named ( World Economic Model )
Weltwirtschaftsmodell, which ended the 1 Quarter ( First Quarter ) this year 2022 and became since early on the Futuristic Plannnig & Diversification from andreaspennophotography.de / Sourcing for Digital Hugh Classified Marketing & Graphically Created Opportunities & News / So take a Look on this Sector about Aerospace & Aeronautics and NASA also (ISS ) North America and Indian Delving in the Galaxy
Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronautics. Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain both aircraft and spacecraft.
The beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100 km (62 mi) above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity.
In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of the public and private sectors. For example, several states have a civilian space program funded by the government, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in Japan, Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, and Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spacecraft and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Cobham, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MDA and Northrop Grumman. These companies are also involved in other areas of aerospace, such as the construction of aircraft.
( History )
Main articles: History of aviation and Timeline of space exploration
( ISS ) Human Exploration ( Cosmos ) Space Development (.A.P. P ) alias / Project from My Corporation ( A.P. P ) Project Planned Absolved 4th Quarter 2023
Glider proposed by Cayley in an 1852 magazine.
Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane.
The 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain (1866), the American Rocketry Society, and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces. The Wright brothers were interested in Lilienthal's work and read several of his publications. They also found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines (1894). It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers.
War and science fiction inspired scientists and engineers like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. World War II inspired Wernher von Braun to create the V1 and V2 rockets.
The launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, and on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace.
Main article: Aerospace manufacturer
Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, and related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each original equipment manufacturer (OEM), the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, and other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry.
In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the very large airline industry. The aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas also being important. The leading aerospace manufacturers in the U.S. are Boeing, United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U.S. workers age and retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council (AJAC) work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state (Boeing), California (Boeing, Lockheed Martin, etc.); Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Bombardier, Pratt & Whitney Canada); Toulouse, France (Airbus/EADS); Hamburg, Germany (Airbus/EADS); and São José dos Campos, Brazil (Embraer), Querétaro, Mexico (Bombardier Aerospace, General Electric Aviation) and Mexicali, Mexico (United Technologies Corporation, Gulfstream Aerospace).
In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Thales, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p.A. (formerly Finmeccnica) account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products.
In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008.
In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Irkut which includes Beriev) are among the major global players in this industry. The historic Soviet Union was also the home of a major aerospace industry.
The United Kingdom formerly attempted to maintain its own large aerospace industry, making its own airliners and warplanes, but it has largely turned its lot over to cooperative efforts with continental companies, and it has turned into a large import customer, too, from countries such as the United States. However, the UK has a very active aerospace sector, including the second largest defence contractor in the world, BAE Systems, supplying fully assembled aircraft, aircraft components, sub-assemblies and sub-systems to other manufacturers, both in Europe and all over the world.
Canada has formerly manufactured some of its own designs for jet warplanes, etc. (e.g. the CF-100 fighter), but for some decades, it has relied on imports from the United States and Europe to fill these needs. However Canada still manufactures some military aircraft although they are generally not combat capable. Another notable example was the late 1950s development of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow, a supersonic fighter-interceptor whose 1959 cancellation was considered highly controversial.
France has continued to make its own warplanes for its air force and navy, and Sweden continues to make its own warplanes for the Swedish Air Force—especially in support of its position as a neutral country. (See Saab AB.) Other European countries either team up in making fighters (such as the Panavia Tornado and the Eurofighter Typhoon), or else to import them from the United States.
Pakistan has a developing aerospace engineering industry. The National Engineering and Scientific Commission, Khan Research Laboratories and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex are among the premier organizations involved in research and development in this sector. Pakistan has the capability of designing and manufacturing guided rockets, missiles and space vehicles. The city of Kamra is home to the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex which contains several factories. This facility is responsible for manufacturing the MFI-17, MFI-395, K-8 and JF-17 Thunder aircraft. Pakistan also has the capability to design and manufacture both armed and unarmed unmanned aerial vehicles.
In the People's Republic of China, Beijing, Xi'an, Chengdu, Shanghai, Shenyang and Nanchang are major research and manufacture centers of the aerospace industry. China has developed an extensive capability to design, test and produce military aircraft, missiles and space vehicles. Despite the cancellation in 1983 of the experimental Shanghai Y-10, China is still developing its civil aerospace industry.
The aircraft parts industry was born out of the sale of second-hand or used aircraft parts from the aerospace manufacture sector. Within the United States there is a specific process that parts brokers or resellers must follow. This includes leveraging a certified repair station to overhaul and "tag" a part. This certification guarantees that a part was repaired or overhauled to meet OEM specifications. Once a part is overhauled its value is determined from the supply and demand of the aerospace market. When an airline has an aircraft on the ground, the part that the airline requires to get the plane back into service becomes invaluable. This can drive the market for specific parts. There are several online marketplaces that assist with the commodity selling of aircraft parts.
In the aerospace and defense industry, much consolidation has occurred at the end of the 20th century, going into the 21st century. Between 1988 and 2011, more than 6,068 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of US$678 billion have been announced worldwide. The largest transactions have been:
The acquisition of Rockwell Collins by United Technologies Corporation for 30.0 bil. USD in 2018
The acquisition of Goodrich Corporation by United Technologies Corporation for 16.2 bil. USD in 2011
The merger of Allied Signal with Honeywell in a stock swap valued 15.6 bil. USD in 1999
The merger of Boeing with McDonnell valued at 13.4 bil. USD in 1996
The acquisition of Marconi Electronic Systems, a subsidiary of GEC, by British Aerospace for 12.9 bil. USD in 1999 (now called: BAE Systems)
The acquisition of Hughes Aircraft by Raytheon for 9.5 bil. USD in 1997
World ( Cosmos ) Humanitarian ( Futuristic Research ) Industrial Initiative ( A.P. P )
World ( ISS ) Middle East Exploring Satellite Space Above Splendid System ( A.P.P )
Project Planned Absolved 4th Quarter 2023
Release Date 2022 4th Quarter / Publication ( A.P. P ) / Bahrain 760km² ( Aerial View from Satellite ) ( GCC ) & Middle East / State Of Qatar / KSA / Mid-East / Protokollierung / 26.11.2022 AD
So above is Bahrain from the Middle East ( Archipelago ) from Mid-East. There is also a Vision 2030 like in the ( KSA ) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.This Portrayal you got a perfect watch at Bahrain from the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC ). This Island named Bahrain is also having a Prince & King. The GCC is very promising & well-established and EU Cooperative as well as world oil dominant by different sourcing. So this aerial & aeronautically view from a satellite capturing & recording is beautifully to observe & look after just study the geography & design from Bahrain.So Bahrain is so unique so study in research of Geographically Map from Above. So Mohammed Bin Salman from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stands in great Cooperation & Partnership to the Crown Prince of Bahrain and all other leaders from the Arab World & ( GCC ). Great Piece of my Middle East ( Study ) of andreaspennophotography.de ( A.P. P ). So the Water is called on Bahrain " Gulf " Also Trading Export & Import Business Activity is on the Run since every day from the 21st Century. So Bahrain does also profit from Oil ( Export ) & Gas ( Export ) and other Commodity for Trade Lanes & Lines from the Maritime & Overseas Trade System in World Affairs. The Trade Opportunities in Bahrain is excellent & well-promising. Even it is small & tiny it has potential. Bahrain consists of 50 Islands & Isles. It's an Monarchy & Kingdom. So it has traditions & different amenities to solve. Bahrain is also in expectations to serve and be carbon neutral in 2060 as same as China & Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NEOM also gonna be built by the hands of totally diligent hard working employees from the arabian Kingdom & abroad. The Public Investment Fund is creating next decades Millions of Jobs for the Arabian Folk. Mohammed Bin Salman is focused on the Kingdom like very truly giving priorities in the arabian Kingdom for Opportunities & Possibilities just Chances for a great established blessed Saudi Arabia. So above is Bahrain from above via Satellite. (BAPCO ) is an Oil Corporation & Industry from Bahrain. It has great natural reservoirs & reserves from Oil & Gas. So Bahrain is also a part of the Crude Oil Independence Program of the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC ) & Oil Diversification from Middle East. Fossil Fuel also in the world will be 2100 mostly vanished & away also from the Middle East just the oil resources will be not more present in world. Also from the Middle East the ( Red Sea ) which is on the coastline of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Or the Gulf of Aqaba. Beautifully & Grandeur these water regions in world. So also now in this time of human civilization in Qatar the Peninsula the Qatar FIFA World Cup 2022 is taken place &is present. All Teams from all over the world is coming to the over 7 Stadiums & Arenas and playing there professional soccer. All People from all over the world is watching this event from Qatar ( Middle East ) in front of the TV. It's the first time that in the Middle East a world championship from soccer is played in this area & world host for this event. Also in the last days Mohammed Bin Salman Al Saud and the Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani was shaking hands in a place anywhere locally in Qatar,Doha. So Mohammad was very optimistically, creative,confident & sure about everything locally in Qatar.Also now for the western civilization of the world Christmas is beginning & starting next days. A great holiday & traditional celebrity evening in world, for the western region of human world.So back to Bahrain. This Country is fulfilled with opportunites & possiibilities to the most occasion ever. All ( GCC ) Countries are enriched with oil confidence & oil treatment. ( Bahrain ) is also established with own citizen coming across the seas to ( State of Qatar ) to the FIFA Football World Cup. So this complete sector of the project + World ( ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System (A.P.P) is now supplementary established with Info & Memo of Bahrain & Middle East. So also Qatar is blessed with Liquefied Natural Gas Enriched Reserves. Al Thani makes his job great & good in the ( State of Qatar ). So the Middle East has different GIGAPROJECTS & Megaprojects. Also Egypt has different to offer. Also UNESCO World Heritage Sites.So the UNESCO fosters over 1000 World Heritage Sites on global scale & world opportunities & Heritage Sites Seldom Chances to achieve in a Country. Italy has the most UNESCO Sites of World. So also brilliant world sly & smart Architects coming to the ( Middle East ) and work together & united with native arabian counterparts on differentiated & global slick,sly & intelligent world tourism projects,eventually,in regard,under consideration on " The Line " NEOM ( Megacity ) Trojena or OXAGON( Which Brings 70.000 Jobs to Arabia ) or Bahrain's Vision 2030 or Qatar's Vision 2030 or Oman's Vision. The Architects, Wind & Sun ( Renewables ) Experts, Thinkers, Painters. Builders or IT-Technology CAD Specialists & Professionals from the Western Civilization is working very unique & established with people from the Middle East or native arabian people is working on projects in their countries.So Bahrain which consists of 50 Natural Islands is close also to United Arab Emirates from reaching a point of a geographically spot.
Federal Republic Of Germany / ( EU ) / Western Civilization about NASA,ISRO and Chinese Space Program /Protokoll 23.12.2022 AD
So now short of Christmas. As far as the space exploration worldwide we can different accentuate & explicable opportunistic explain what's going on in space & above our planet earth in world.So since 1971 AD, 121 Spacecraft Missions came from Indian ( ISRO ) ( Indian Space Research Organization ) Locally Regional Of India into the space, meant mostly Satellites. ( Launch ) Missions from India in World were 87 since Space Exploration exists in India.So the ISRO has also offerings in Academic Research for Studens in India. So India is in hugh development and high proficient exploration for their native country in human civilization & world space civilization. So very peculiar & interesting is the so charismatically,productive,creative ( Hubble Telescope ), which does take so beautifully, pristine,established, utopian portrayals & fantastic brilliant capturings of galactically great recordings, also to watch on google.So Hubble is beautifully & fulfilled of ambitions & hugh interesting galaxy creation. So also the ( NASA ) is now 2022 4th Quarter in development in tabletop discussions for Electrified Air Taxis for different purpose eventually countrywide & national airspace activity in the United States of America, North America.US. So the NASA is busy by this Project and working very disciplined if Air Cabs & Air Taxis can be take regard for different use.So the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( KSA ) and a ( GCC) Member and State launched it's Space Programme as far as the Saudi Space Commission ( SSC ) ,in Riyadh 2018 and has nowadays best choices & opportunties & possibilities to have hugh cooperation in the world for space humanitarian activity and satellite communication in cosmos , also U.K,France,Hungary and the European Space Agency stands futuristic in a great agreement & deal to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.So next time soon in 2023 the first woman in arabian history will be on space mission to the galaxy.A Saudi man has already made it to orbit. The prince Sultan bin Salman Al Saud flew on the STS-51-G mission of the space shuttle Discovery in 1985.So the ( Middle East ) has different at offerings in scale of Space Communication & Space Activity. So the NASA like their own resources does put on excel & definition. It was a great and profitable as well as most successfully year this for the ( NASA ). So next enormous successfully country in space this year should be China. Because of their introduction & opportunistic entry in space of their own space station above named Tiangong . China sent now different Satellites through the earthly horizon & manned spacecraft directing, directly ,diverse to ( Tiangong ). So since 2022 the BRICS is joining space lucrative & aspirational cooperation.So China, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India and different asian countries are in enormous potential growth in human space exploration. So the Russian Federation will leave the ( ISS ) as far as different politically infrastructure is missing,and will leave the ISS in 2024 as far as the news does imply & relate to. So Elon Musk with all this complications & conflicts now in the world leads SPACEX in great circumstances and conditions of. Soon in World ( Starlink) will have worlwide in all countries of humankind online accessibility & entry.So the Space Exploration wordwide in the 21st Century is active. So transplanetary with Moon & Mars in the Milkyway does the world examine, create knowledge,establish basic information since this 21st century. The USA is planning this century to land on the ( MARS ), SpaceX & NASA is in aspirational commitment & structured exchange of being prepared for this TRANSPLANETARY Revolutionary manned journey in world history.So India has so great resources for students in the ( ISRO ) at great academic research in India / Asia.So the Falcon 9 is the first orbital class rocket capable of reflight eventually reproductive. This Rocket is developed from Elon Musk & SPACEX.SpaceX has till now a balance of 191 Launches 149 Total Landings and 128 Reflights now in the 4 Quarter 2022.So nowadays is happen a lot in world. Also the Climate Change worldwide in almost different world continents or the World Economically Status in Financial & Central Banking. Like you is alredy reading the news, it's all about interest rates lifting and rising from ultra mega chiffre of different banks worldwide, also from the European Central Bank or the US FED ( North America ) are concerned .No liquide resolutions is coming directly into anything as far as the financially operating systematically banking decisions & classified engagement of financially correct handling, also Christine Lagarde has a lot to do as far as her portfolio in Frankfurt. So Space Exploration worldwide is a science for itself.The Space is an eternal & endless big galaxy without ending of a cosmos and eternity of space , which makes even this second big project so unique. So space exploring scientists we have great established individuals on earth on our planet. They are creating great formulas & clauses and mathematically resolutions for different opportunistic corporations & companies in aerospace worldwide. Even Albert Einstein was an Astrophysician which was born in Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany.and died in a hospital in New Jersey, North America, East Coast of America. He was such a genius & professional and inspirational with his theories in astronomy. He was a whiz & a highly intelligent & intellectual astrophysician of all time, really if you watch his photos and his so striking facial aspects. So the world is turning every 24 hours on it's axis. And the Space Race from all countries is actively worldwide.So Indian ( ISRO ) is definitely at growth in this human world. And under chinese perspective & infrastructure, China will grow and be very developed,constructive and opportunistic in human world space development.So also SpaceX created the ( MERLIN ) is family of rock engines established directely from North America USA, SpaceX in their belonging.So India is developing in space activity in enormous strides. The ISRO was founded 1969 in India. They had also 2020 a lot to do with opportunistic moon transplanetary research in New-Delhi.They are at Growth even 50 years since creation & establishment in World.
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Hubble Telescope from Orbital Space Over Planet Earth / Rotation / A.P. P
World (ISS ) Intergalactic Space Exploring ( Universe ) System ( A.P.P ) / World / Space News / NASA, North America, 03.01.2023 AD
So, now 2023 turned on the new date & time of earth, especially news for the aerospace news in world & cosmos. The Hubble Telescope is steadily taking new shots, capturings & recordings on scale in circulating time.Now In 2023 the perspective on 2022 as far as the NASA.Astronomically & Historic for this time of human earth in space.2022 AD was the historically Launch of the Artemis 1 flight test around the moon from NASA ( National Aeronautic Space Administration ) from North America,USA. So also Mohammed Bin Salman ( Kingdom's Heir of Saudi Arabia ) and the arabian aerospace program from Riyadh is very prepared for different activity & promulgating engagment in space above our earth in universe cosmos. As far as the schooling system on ( NASA ) students have different opportunities & possibilities in the NASA STEM 2023.Now the new year started also the Roscosmos is getting everyday closer to leave the ( ISS ) Lounge & Activity in Space as far as politically reasons & rationales.So India is doing very well with their ( ISRO ) Central from New Delhi the main capital from India ( Asia ). So also new on this second big project from ( A.P.P ), this sector, the International Space Science Institute from Switzerland,Bern ( ISSI ) from European Continent , Humankind,World. The ( ISSI ) delves & explores with hugh amounts scientists from all over the world, on different scientific horizons, and opportunities in space program abilties. These Scientists are very intelligent like the country Switzerland from Europe at it all. They get in intelligent scientific exploration of groundbased observations, laboratory experiments, Workshops and this all from Bern, Switzerland, Europe,World. This Organization is very hugh characterised from ideals & humanitarian research of space experiments but stands small as far as hugh intelligent & intellectual ground fundamentally exploration from North America,USA,NASA of World. So also like previously protokolliert the ( Middle East ) has beautifully patterns,sketches & circuits and NASA, especially Satellite Capturings from above. Also Mohammed Bin Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud is investing hugh in Space Articulated Program from Riyadh also in NEOM. Also my loving product of literally correspondence named " Food Packages " in ( ISS ) for Nourishment. The Galaxy my loving World is an endless space full of planets & eternally reaching wide room like in this pronounciation said. So also experiments growing plants without soil in space is also comfortable with seeds & opportunistic in the ISS in modus & establishment and promising idea.So the continent North America has galactically rising principles with SPACEX & NASA coming close to a point that this Continent is the most slick, smart ,sly, space exploring intelligent & established Space Researching Manned Resource in World Space History. Also the ISRO from India has made in the 21st Century a lot of advancement & strides in world.Also 2022 in Historically Timeline of NASA it reached a trio of CUBESATS, (TUMnanoSAT, FUTABA, and HSU-SAT1) designed for education and research programs, outside the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) as the space station orbits 259 miles above circulation of world. Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) installed the Osteogenic Cells experiment in Space. Also Hugh Informed Established Developed Members of the ( ISS ) are Switzerland,Canada ( Canadian Space Agency ) ,Brazil ( South American Continent ), Austria ( EU ) USA ( North America ) ( NASA), Italy,Russian Federation ,United Kingdom,Denmark ( Scandinavia ) , Belgium ( Benelux ),Sweden ( Nordic State ) , Germany ( Native Country ), and different more related in this arrangement & portrait of membership of the ( ISS ) International Space Station. I guess in the last Protokollierungen some complete establishment was mentioned of ISS Members. NASA astronauts also Josh Cassada and Frank Rubio developed & installed during a spacewalk installing a roll-out solar array, or iROSA, to the International Space Station's starboard truss structure. Once all six iROSAs are installed, the station’s power generation is expected to increase to a combined total of more than 250 kW, more than a 30% increase, benefiting space station research and operations. So the world has a space race from all nations in the world above us as an hugh cosmos proliferating space in hugh concentration followed by all nations trying to achieve great success, like Elon Musk from SpaceX or NASA. So the transplanetary mission to MARS will be maybe reality with the manned american us north american chosen brave team this century in the milky way in stance of. Achievements are close. So URANUS & Neptune,Pluto,Jupiter ,Venus, Saturn, Mars and intergalatically journeys in Entry from Planet Earth to these TRANSPLANETARY Planets could be humanitarian success to land of. But maybe in 2500 A.D or 3000 A.D ( Anno Dominion ) when the human intelligent powers are fully maximised for these missions & landings. So Satellite Capturings are very beautifully, like i also made the point clear with Bahrain.Gulf.Middle East.World. Well, activity on the ISS is nowadays hugh developed & explored. Joe Biden will be succesfully proud of Elon Musk, the great American. Also Kamala Harris Vice Precidency should be very proud of what the NASA has achieved in the last years,decades for North America the Continent and the country USA.
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World / News / Space Exploration / ESA / ISRO / ISS / NASA / Western Civilization, ISS,DE, Protokollierung 14.01.2023 AD
Well, now the space exploration from the planet earth is truly promising in the 1 Quarter 2023. A lot of changes is coming now in the beginning of the new date & year in 2023.Also the Middle East has nowadays strong resources & fundamentally source for space exploration & delving in the cosmos. Now this time, the japanese prime minister, US Secretary of State,United States & Japanese Leaders visited the Main Central & Headquarters of NASA,North America.Nowadays NASA confirms it's first ( WEBB ) Exoplanet.Also NASA Scientists & Satellites make Sense of Earth's subtle Motions.So the ( ISRO ) Indian Space Research Organization is developing into a hugh opportunistic corporation in India for Space Exploration.Latest News are from India ( ISRO ) where Narendra Modi is prime minister, is that the ambassador of Costa Rica to India met Chairman,ISRO. So Space Race is definitely routine & a stereotype on our human planet earth.( A.P.P ) is also like already written in the ( Protokollierungen ) before, in this Second Big Project from Blog & Industry publishing ( Middle East ) Satellite Capturings (Imagery ) like on different Sectors & Zessionen on this industry from ( A.P.P ). So the Middle East is involved photographically & portrayed under different schemas & patterns on this project. Roscosmos anyway is hugh enormous developed & concerned as gigantically space establishment in world like the NASA or further European Central Stations. So Elon Musk as a professional & truly concentrated expert in a design of Human Space Discovery & Delving.Anyway ASTROSAT in nowadays 7 years at gala. Dubai has also different Space Ideas & Comfortability Systematically Exploration in World.So the (ISS ) is dependent also on ( OXYGEN ) Volume Tanks. Food Packages are same as presently from the ( ISS ) from Docking Systematically Entry from Earth. So the US Austronaut Neil Amstrong once landed on the ( Moon ) Transplanetary opportunistic and was creating World History last century. Opportunities & Possibilities are in (ESA ) European Space Agency enormously. As far as ( ISRO ) (NASA) (ESA ) (ROSCOSMOS ) the World has strong Space Resources & Development.The ESA has Budget of 6,49 Billion Euro & and has it's Headquarters in Paris,France ( EU ) Europe. The CEO is Josef Aschbacher. Established Headcount are 2200 Employees in Corporation in France.1975 was the ESA from the European Continent built in hugh futuristic ideal. The North American Continent with the ( NASA ) and the Hubble Telescope ( Beautifully Telescopically Appliance in Space for ( Imagery ) of Galaxy Space Photography. So now in 2023 AD the first woman from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will come to the chance of getting into the space from the Central of Riyadh. So NASA is developing,delving & creating human space for the universe above in hugh opportunities also in the factories for build-up segments of Rockets & NASA Equipment & Accoutrement. SPACEX was having since creation different starts & montage corporate physically establishment for it's diverse industry.So the ( ISS ) has different Countries in the Shuttle & Capsule just the Organization. So now in January the NASA found in a Mission " Jetlets " could power the wind energy opportunities. ( UAE ) Space Agency is the Organization from the United Arab Emirates for Space Exploration & Development. Also ( Muhammad Bin Salman ) has Corporate Investment in Space Development from Riyadh for the Vision 2030. Now, really in the 21st Century globally the establishment & development as well as resources from Cosmos & Universe Research Environmentally Studies are hugh, since beginning of Aerospace in 1960 of History. So the ISS has also special recordings from Kamchatka ( Russian Federation ).The Jupiter,Uranus,Moon,Mars.Venus, Saturn, Mercury are hugh interesting unique planetary systems in space. ( Transplanetary ) to Mars the Human Manned Expedition could be reaching in possibility in this century. Truly.With all the Technology & Dedication to Systematic Equipment.Also the Moon Landing from Neil Amstrong back in History was a major strike for USA, North America,US.World. So the ( Abu Dhabi Space Debate ) was in 5-6th December in Abu Dhabi,Emirates( UAE ) 2022. Hold under Patronage of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan.President of the United Arab Emirates ( UAE ) Middle East,World.So Space & Aerospace in Globalization has a lot to offer worldwide. Also from NASA the Space Rockets Models are great developed. The Propulsion is hugh modernized & capitalized under hugh construction developed. So South America has the Agência Espacial Brasileira (Brazilian Space Agency). This Agency comes from South America Transcontinental to my Continent Europe.The Canadian Space Agency has also differentiated to offer in hugh circulating mass of creational & development initiatives . So the World does explore most from every Continent in Space and most countries have satelites above the horizon and galaxy. Also Research Centers from World delve & explore from different & circulating ares & regions of world in this subject matter & scale of aerospace & technologically space opportunities, also scientifically. At this special moment to create knowledge about the space program of world, maybe our human planet earth will have after 2100 grandeur & paramountly excessive more resources in space technology, also for astronauts and ISS & NASA. Also 2100 will be the road system & Metropolitan City Scale Networking and World Road System driven unter 100 % Green Renewables. This will be a whole another generation from our humankind than nowadays.So Satellites are circulating above. Also Television does work from the Sateliites above from the signalisation & communication.Just Television Channels from all Countries of Human World. The Planet Earth is beautifully & charismatically and especially unique in itself with it's oceans & continents, i guess also the Red Sea. Also the ( ISRO ) is in hugh Growth nowadays in India.Continent.Asia. Also Australia Space Agency is in hugh factor of the Country's Space Program & Infrastructure & Technology of Aerospace in it's Norm & Form.So this World ( Galaxy ) Gravitations & ( Revolutionary Space Establishment ) Initiative ( A.P.P) or World ( Revolutionary ) Systematic ( Middle ) East Exploration Center ( A.P.P ) the Alternative Names & Established Norms & Forms from the Second Big Project from ( A.P.P ) are involved.( ISS ) Universe Main Decipher & Media Intellectual Commission ( A.P.P) is like already mentioned is also an alternative opportunistic name from this Project. So this Alternative Names are 15 apiece & are implying just the ( Project ) itself and are taking care of an enlisting & administration to different regions & scale of this World ( ISS ) Intergalatic Space Exploring Universe System ( A.P.P ).
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